Saturday, May 23, 2020

Why Did Freud Use Oedipis As Basis - 1355 Words

SHAKESPEARES PLAY-FREUD WHY DID FREUD USE OEDIPIS AS BASIS!! HAMLET Freudian theories are most prominent in Hamlet out of all Shakespeare’s plays. The most common repressed desire is that of Oedipus. In the myth Oedipus killed his father, and went on to marry his mother, without knowing who each of them were. In this myth the feelings are brought to light however in Hamlet they stay repressed. We only learn of it through the effects it causes. Hamlet is all about incest. After his father’s death his mother plans to marry his uncle. This is Hamlets first association of sexuality with his mother. Hamlet sees this as ‘foul incest’ little does he know that he is repressing his own psychosexual feelings. With someone about to take his father’s place, it stirs a long repressed desire of Hamlets to take his father’s place. Gertrude is also a very sexual being, and it is her sexuality that turns Hamlet so violently against her. Claudius is Hamlets uncle, marrying his mother. Hamlet is disgusted by this seemingly incest arrangement and the ghost of Hamlets father seemingly appears calling Claudius, ‘that incestuous, that adulterate beast’. Many critics read the line adulterate beast as proof that Gerturde had been the lover of Claudius even before Hamlet s father had died. However, is Gertrude had been having an affair she would most likely be seen as part of the murder plot. Claudius does not confide in her however leading us to believe she was not in fact an acomplice. This

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Growing Of Homelessness In California - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2988 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/03/26 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Homelessness Essay Did you like this example? Homelessness seem to be growing even more throughout the state of California everyday. As i ride the Metro buses with my son no matter where youre going or passing there will be a homeless person sleeping nearby in a tent, Asking for money, or just simply looking in the garbage. People treat the homeless like the plague no one wants to help out of fear that just being near them will make them dirty or sick, It just simply pisses me of to see how they are treated when they are human to that just struggle more than the average human being everyday.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Growing Of Homelessness In California" essay for you Create order I was able to see first hand have differently a person asks the moment they find out your homeless. Im currently 21 but when i was 16 years old me and my best friend became homeless due to life threatening situations within the foster system, At first we lived with my mother until we were 17 because my mother is bipolar i was getting abused so we packed up our things and tried staying with his family which only worked out for a few months since because was young and had body in her eyes she believed her human would lose interest in her and focus on me instead. So we left the first place we went was near a freeway exit and an ally there was a couch there and we had blankets, So we slept there for a week some lady driving by saw us and went across the street to Carls jr and got us some burgers and gave us 10$ we were thankful but other people werent so kind so we were told to move from that area. So we slept in the park at the science center for 2 days, Then on the rock benches in fr ont of the museum wed charge our phones in the museum and shower at the beach or drop in centers where wed get newer cleaner clothes and every thursday at 12am after the food truck in hollywood we got to get our clothes washed for free and get served free food. We stay in an abandoned house for 4 months and went to the library nearby but smokers found out about our place and we didnt feel safe so my mother bought us a tent and camp stove and gas cans she told us about a place down a dead end street where people live in the tents and from there we lived there for 2 years we always showered and got different clothes so no one ever knew we were homeless until they see us get into our tent. But when friends find out your homeless they start to avoid you and treat you differently see i wasnt homeless because i did drugs or was sleeping around i was homeless because i ran away to live no one really understood that so i got my life together without caring about how i was treated or looked at. So when i pass that area to this day and see the same people that were homeless when i was 18 in there tents it just make me wonder what is the world coming to why arent they working on getting the homeless off the streets with cheaper rent, yet they have a whole apartment rent free for people with STDs i believe thats bullshit how they have their priorities based on the LA Times there are 58,000 homeless people within the Downtown Los angeles area. I mean thats just ridiculous. They have money to build trains and expanding staples center, and low income family housing but they cant build some build housing for the homeless or more shelters and its not like they cant they just dont care or even bother to think about it their are so many families and teenagers on the streets and no one is helping all the places that you can go to for help expect to much from us and theres always a stupid waiting list for everything then you end up waiting for 3 or 13 years because they dont intend to help you get off the streets. I know some homeless people are on the streets because they put themselves there for many reasons i dont understand but a lot of people are homeless because they dont get paid enough to pay rent and get evicted or the city evicted everyone from there home to demolish the building there are many reasons why people are on the streets. Los Angeles, California ranks in as the second largest city in the United States. It is home to 3.8 billion people, including many famous movie stars. Known for being one of the sunniest and most tourist-conscious cities, Los Angeles offers many attractions for visitors problem of homelessness. They hold many sports venues as well, including the Staples Center, which houses the L.A. Lakers and many award shows, like the Grammys. Over the years Los Angeles developed nicknames for its city, such as L.A. and The City of Angels. While some people might call it The City of Angels, others could not disagree more with the nickname. During the daytime Los Angeles is a place of business, upper-class citizens roam the streets and movie producers are filming there next big hit. On the other hand, at nighttime its nothing more than a nightmare you cannot wake up from, thousands of people are left roaming the streets searching for a place to sleep. What we do not typically hear about or see is Los Angeless Skid Row, which hides in the shadows of the downtown skyline. This fifty block section of downtown L.A. holds the largest concentrated area of homeless people in the entire United States los Angeles City of stars. The section of Fifth Street is also referred to as the nickel. It is said that Skid Row is Americas only third world city. Skid Row is nothing more than a result of the neighborhoods gentrification. These horrifying streets are home to the unwanted. Many police officers from other jurisdictions have been seen dumping homeless people in the area they cannot provide correct services to them, so they dump them there. Already overwhelmed with the abundance of homeless people, the county is facing a major problem with social service organizations being short staffed and are experiencing a shortage of funds. Any services that a homeless person might be offered, is located in the downtown area of Los Angeles. The Los angeles police department Chief thought he had found a solution to help local businesses and real estate developers weed out the site of homeless people. He would have anyone arrested for minor infractions, littering, sleeping on sidewalks, and public urination. Unfortunately, his strategies were only wishful thinking. Soon after his rules were put into effect, the city jails were overpopulated with homeless people and could not hold anymore. It was also costing the city more to keep them in jail, than it did to help house them for the night Recent plans for Skid Row have been to build condos and lofts that sell for $700,000. This would completely gentrify the area and push homeless people further away. Without anywhere else in the county offering assistance for the homeless, they have nowhere and no one to turn to for help. Los Angeles Homeless Service Authority could not afford the new rent. They were forced to move because the building was being renovated into condominiu ms. The downtown area is being renovated to attract new businesses, but the downfall of it all is that its causing rental prices to become unaffordable. New homes and condos are priced at an average of $2,000 to $3,000 per month. Los Angeles has the most expensive rental market in the entire state of California. With housing costs on the rise and the supply of affordable housing falling, many people are struggling to keep a roof over their head. Due to the renovations and demolitions, the 28,000 affordable homes L.A. produced from 2001 to 2006 meant nothing, because they lost 11,000 homes in the process research briefly. Los Angeles is demolishing perfectly good homes, during the middle of a housing crisis. Coalition for Economic Survival and Housing LA, have both been fighting to stop renovations and demolitions. Thankfully, the City Planning Department has recently started to deny some request for such demolition. They are also making it a requirement that some of the residences have to be affordable livable place. To restore Los Angeless middle class society, it must provide and create enough affordable housing units. Affordable housing is the ratio of housing costs to household income. Families should not pay more than 30% of their income, but in L.A. most moderate to low income families, pay 50%. For someone to live in a one-bedroom apartment in L.A., they must make a minimum of $48,000 a year livable places. An average family of four with two working parents must make $70,000 a year, just to skim. In 2007, only 3% of homes sold in Los Angeles were affordable for median income families Pricey properties. As the need for housing grows larger the number of homeless people, also increase. Not only are these developers building new condos, but they are evicting residents as well. These families that are being evicted or flat out cannot afford the new pricing are left without a home. Due to the shortage of affordable housing units, the Hollywood Community Housing Corporation formed a lottery for people to have a chance to secure a spot in a new fifty-eight unit subsidized apartment. Lines formed seven hundred people deep, waiting for an application. Even though they might have received an application, that did not mean they were accepted. The housing CEO said that subsidized projects similar to this one were becoming more and more difficult to finance hundreds of people have to wait. For families who do not win the lottery, they are left on the streets and shooed away. Because of the increase and wide spread of non-affordable housing, homelessness is at an all time high. What used to be a designated area for the homeless in Los Angeles, Skid Row, is now a widespread community epidemic. Homelessness is no longer designated to the poorer areas of Los Angeles; the entire county is now seeing, what was once an isolated phenomenon. All eight of the Service Planning Areas have been heavily affected. On an average night in Los Angeles, 73,000 homeless people roam the streets without a place to sleep. Around 40% of the homeless have been this way for less than a year. About half the residents living in L.A. are housing a family member or friend, to keep them off the streets. Los Angeles County supplies 17,000 emergency beds for the homeless. This low amount does not even come close to the demand for them. Shelter Partnership did a study that showed how L.A.s shelters and agencies only accommodate a quarter of homeless families the Los Angeles Unified School District has reported a 35% increase of homeless students. Recent data has revealed that the number of homeless families with children is rising. Between 2006 and 2007 HUD data reported that public schools were teaching an estimated 680,000 children that were either homeless or living in an unstable environment. Studies have shown that homelessness can lower a childs academic performance and reduce high school completion. Homel ess children are nearly three times more likely to suffer from emotional or behavior problems, thus in the long run affecting their education. An estimated amount of 10,000 people were found living in inhabitable areas not only has the lack of affordable housing causes homelessness, but the economy as well. The recession has impacted the job market greatly.This would cause nearly 10 million Americans to live in poverty. The United States is dealing with the highest amount of unemployment rates, it has ever seen. It is likely that the nation will face its highest increase in severe poverty, than it has in the last 30 years. The current recession is more likely to cause the risk of homelessness. Unlike previous recessions that provided safety nets to protect jobless families, the assistance for families now is weaker than ever. The non-profit organization, Chrysalis, provides employment opportunities to help family prevent the risk of becoming homeless. Chrysalis Enterprises is Los Angeles only non-profit organization. Each year, they help over 2,500 people avoid the risks of poverty and homelessness. They provide yearly assistance for transitional jobs to 600 men and women every year. Even though Congress is expected to try and restore several million jobs, an unbelievably high number of people will still be at the risk of becoming homeless. Local and state jurisdictions have arranged interagency plans to prevent homelessness. This has helped reduce the number of unsheltered people in the past, and if proper resources are used than it could lessen the increase of homelessness during the recession. Adequate funding must be provided in order for the interagency plans to function effectively. However, states and localities are dealing with budget shortfalls. The recession has caused them to cut programs and raise taxes to try and keep their budget balanced. Homelessness prevention will without a doubt struggle to maintain, let alone increase proper funding. Between 2007 and 2008 Los Angeles County has reported a 12% increase in welfare assistance for families who are homeless. More families will fall into deep poverty if the unemployment rate keeps rising. An estimated 900,000 to 1.1 million families with children will reach the level of severe poverty if this happens, leaving them with the risk of homelessness and housing instability. Despite falling incomes and rising unemployment, rents are still being driven through the roof. Home foreclosures constantly keep pushing home owners into the rental market. The severe problem with home foreclosures and housing sectors only help cater the increase of homeless families. The demand for rental units will continually grow even though the prices of homes are falling. Families, who would originally be buying homes right now, are renting; they are waiting for the economy and prices to stabilize before doing so. Homelessness will continue to rise during the recession, as long as the housing market maintains its ongoing troubles. One way Los Angeles can help try to prevent homelessness, is by offering housing vouchers. These vouchers can be used for families to pay past due utility bills or rent. Families dealing with foreclosure can be assisted with relocation funds, a one-time cost associated with moving into a new home. Unfortunately, the only way these short-term assistance programs will work, is if families are able to uphold their ongoing rental costs. A recent five year study has proven that housing vouchers are effective in preventing homelessness. The government needs to grant a substantial number of additional vouchers in the economic recovery package. In an economic crisis, such as now, voucher programs work the best. As a familys income changes the amount of subsidy they receive will also change. Costs will also decline as the participants gain employment and their earnings increase. In 2008, Congress provided 15,000 new housing vouchers. Only 2,840 of the new vouchers were given to families with children; the families also had to be connected to the foster system. The rest of the vouchers were set aside for disabled people and homeless veterans. If no special restrictions on eligibility for new vouchers are set by Congress, then state and local agencies that receive the funds will be responsible for disbursing them. It is likely that more than half of the vouchers will be given to poor families with children. Because of the recession, it is unlikely that families will leave the program, but there is still a chance that some families might leave the program for non-economic reasons. The possibility of less people leaving the program than anticipated could result in a need for additional funding, to sustain new vouchers that were not offset. The proposed funding of $2.1 billion is only meant to cover a sixteen month period. If Congress provided a twenty month program, than agencies could accept a higher number of vouchers and further help prevent homelessness in their community. With the new proposal, families would be able to spend more money on food, clothing, and health care. The benefits of trying to eliminate and reduce homelessness would be immediate and long-term. New vouchers would help pump funds back into local economies within a four to six month period. California is such a big state and makes so much money but they just want more and more they rather die out the homeless so they can house the people with money, they have a hand full of housing services for specific people like disabled, pregnant, teenagers, families etc.. but they are very limited and its not very easy you can only get services before your homeless to the fact that you cant buy any food. Thats why when you call or sign up they ask if your homeless or at risk for homelessness meaning or you homeless because rents to high or or you homeless because you dont even have a dollar to your name which is absolute bullshit but apparently thats how the world will be until we get a president that actually want to do something for everyone and not pick and chose Obama cared enough to give homeless people better services and give of free phones thats paid for so they can stay connected to family, friends, and feel normal again. Trump so far isnt on my like list and i have nothing good to say about him, So ill end it here my research shows that California has limited help and care for the homeless they rather push than pull. Which is why homeless people without families commit crimes so they get sent to prison because they get a bed, clothes, shower, and a meal everyday. And California need to start lower the homeless rate before other homeless people start catching on before the p rison and jails start filling up.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Da Vinci Code Chapter 24-29 Free Essays

string(62) " Leonardo Da Vinci claimed she was his finest accomplishment\." CHAPTER 24 Silas gazed upward at the Saint-Sulpice obelisk, taking in the length of the massive marble shaft. His sinews felt taut with exhilaration. He glanced around the church one more time to make sure he was alone. We will write a custom essay sample on The Da Vinci Code Chapter 24-29 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Then he knelt at the base of the structure, not out of reverence, but out of necessity. The keystone is hidden beneath the Rose Line. At the base of the Sulpice obelisk. All the brothers had concurred. On his knees now, Silas ran his hands across the stone floor. He saw no cracks or markings to indicate a movable tile, so he began rapping softly with his knuckles on the floor. Following the brass line closer to the obelisk, he knocked on each tile adjacent to the brass line. Finally, one of them echoed strangely. There’s a hollow area beneath the floor! Silas smiled. His victims had spoken the truth. Standing, he searched the sanctuary for something with which to break the floor tile. High above Silas, in the balcony, Sister Sandrine stifled a gasp. Her darkest fears had just been confirmed. This visitor was not who he seemed. The mysterious Opus Dei monk had come to Saint- Sulpice for another purpose. A secret purpose. You are not the only one with secrets, she thought. Sister Sandrine Bieil was more than the keeper of this church. She was a sentry. And tonight, the ancient wheels had been set in motion. The arrival of this stranger at the base of the obelisk was a signal from the brotherhood. It was a silent call of distress. CHAPTER 25 The U. S. Embassy in Paris is a compact complex on Avenue Gabriel, just north of the Champs-Elysees. The three-acre compound is considered U. S. soil, meaning all those who stand on it are subject to the same laws and protections as they would encounter standing in the United States. The embassy’s night operator was reading Time magazine’s International Edition when the sound of her phone interrupted. â€Å"U. S. Embassy,† she answered. â€Å"Good evening.† The caller spoke English accented with French. â€Å"I need some assistance.† Despite the politeness of the man’s words, his tone sounded gruff and official. â€Å"I was told you had a phone message for me on your automated system. The name is Langdon. Unfortunately, I have forgotten my three-digit access code. If you could help me, I would be most grateful.† The operator paused, confused. â€Å"I’m sorry, sir. Your message must be quite old. That system was removed two years ago for security precautions. Moreover, all the access codes were five-digit. Who told you we had a message for you?† â€Å"You have no automated phone system?† â€Å"No, sir. Any message for you would be handwritten in our services department. What was your name again?† But the man had hung up. Bezu Fache felt dumbstruck as he paced the banks of the Seine. He was certain he had seen Langdon dial a local number, enter a three-digit code, and then listen to a recording. But if Langdon didn’t phone the embassy, then who the hell did he call? It was at that moment, eyeing his cellular phone, that Fache realized the answers were in the palm of his hand. Langdon used my phone to place that call. Keying into the cell phone’s menu, Fache pulled up the list of recently dialed numbers and found the call Langdon had placed. A Paris exchange, followed by the three-digit code 454. Redialing the phone number, Fache waited as the line began ringing. Finally a woman’s voice answered. â€Å"Bonjour, vous etes bien chez Sophie Neveu,† the recording announced. â€Å"Je suis absente pour le moment, mais†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Fache’s blood was boiling as he typed the numbers 4†¦ 5†¦ 4. CHAPTER 26 Despite her monumental reputation, the Mona Lisa was a mere thirty-one inches by twenty-one inches – smaller even than the posters of her sold in the Louvre gift shop. She hung on the northwest wall of the Salle des Etats behind a two-inch-thick pane of protective Plexiglas. Painted on a poplar wood panel, her ethereal, mist-filled atmosphere was attributed to Da Vinci’s mastery of the sfumato style, in which forms appear to evaporate into one another. Since taking up residence in the Louvre, the Mona Lisa – or La Jaconde as they call her in France – had been stolen twice, most recently in 1911, when she disappeared from the Louvre’s† satte impenetrable† – Le Salon Carre. Parisians wept in the streets and wrote newspaper articles begging the thieves for the painting’s return. Two years later, the Mona Lisa was discovered hidden in the false bottom of a trunk in a Florence hotel room. Langdon, now having made it clear to Sophie that he had no intention of leaving, moved with her across the Salle des Etats. The Mona Lisa was still twenty yards ahead when Sophie turned on the black light, and the bluish crescent of penlight fanned out on the floor in front of them. She swung the beam back and forth across the floor like a minesweeper, searching for any hint of luminescent ink. Walking beside her, Langdon was already feeling the tingle of anticipation that accompanied his face-to-face reunions with great works of art. He strained to see beyond the cocoon of purplish light emanating from the black light in Sophie’s hand. To the left, the room’s octagonal viewing divan emerged, looking like a dark island on the empty sea of parquet. Langdon could now begin to see the panel of dark glass on the wall. Behind it, he knew, in the confines of her own private cell, hung the most celebrated painting in the world. The Mona Lisa’s status as the most famous piece of art in the world, Langdon knew, had nothing to do with her enigmatic smile. Nor was it due to the mysterious interpretations attributed her by many art historians and conspiracy buffs. Quite simply, the Mona Lisa was famous because Leonardo Da Vinci claimed she was his finest accomplishment. You read "The Da Vinci Code Chapter 24-29" in category "Essay examples" He carried the painting with him whenever he traveled and, if asked why, would reply that he found it hard to part with his most sublime expression of female beauty. Even so, many art historians suspected Da Vinci’s reverence for the Mona Lisa had nothing to do with its artistic mastery. In actuality, the painting was a surprisingly ordinary sfumato portrait. Da Vinci’s veneration for this work, many claimed, stemmed from something far deeper: a hidden message in the layers of paint. The Mona Lisa was, in fact, one of the world’s most documented inside jokes. The painting’s well-documented collage of double entendres and playful allusions had been revealed in most art history tomes, and yet, incredibly, the public at large still considered her smile a great mystery. No mystery at all, Langdon thought, moving forward and watching as the faint outline of the painting began to take shape. No mystery at all. Most recently Langdon had shared the Mona Lisa’s secret with a rather unlikely group – a dozen inmates at the Essex County Penitentiary. Langdon’s jail seminar was part of a Harvard outreach program attempting to bring education into the prison system – Culture for Convicts, as Langdon’s colleagues liked to call it. Standing at an overhead projector in a darkened penitentiary library, Langdon had shared the MonaLisa’s secret with the prisoners attending class, men whom he found surprisingly engaged – rough, but sharp. â€Å"You may notice,† Langdon told them, walking up to the projected image of the MonaLisa on the library wall,† that the background behind her face is uneven.† Langdon motioned to the glaring discrepancy. â€Å"Da Vinci painted the horizon line on the left significantly lower than the right.† â€Å"He screwed it up?† one of the inmates asked. Langdon chuckled. â€Å"No. Da Vinci didn’t do that too often. Actually, this is a little trick Da Vinci played. By lowering the countryside on the left, Da Vinci made Mona Lisa look much larger from the left side than from the right side. A little Da Vinci inside joke. Historically, the concepts of male and female have assigned sides – left is female, and right is male. Because Da Vinci was a big fan of feminine principles, he made Mona Lisa look more majestic from the left than the right.† â€Å"I heard he was a fag,† said a small man with a goatee. Langdon winced. â€Å"Historians don’t generally put it quite that way, but yes, Da Vinci was a homosexual.† â€Å"Is that why he was into that whole feminine thing?† â€Å"Actually, Da Vinci was in tune with the balance between male and female. He believed that a human soul could not be enlightened unless it had both male and female elements.† â€Å"You mean like chicks with dicks?† someone called. This elicited a hearty round of laughs. Langdon considered offering an etymological sidebar about the word hermaphrodite and its ties to Hermes and Aphrodite, but something told him it would be lost on this crowd. â€Å"Hey, Mr. Langford,† a muscle-bound man said. â€Å"Is it true that the Mona Lisa is a picture of Da Vinci in drag? I heard that was true.† â€Å"It’s quite possible,† Langdon said. â€Å"Da Vinci was a prankster, and computerized analysis of the Mona Lisa and Da Vinci’s self-portraits confirm some startling points of congruency in their faces. Whatever Da Vinci was up to,† Langdon said,† his Mona Lisa is neither male nor female. It carries a subtle message of androgyny. It is a fusing of both.† â€Å"You sure that’s not just some Harvard bullshit way of saying Mona Lisa is one ugly chick.† Now Langdon laughed. â€Å"You may be right. But actually Da Vinci left a big clue that the painting was supposed to be androgynous. Has anyone here ever heard of an Egyptian god named Amon?† â€Å"Hell yes!† the big guy said. â€Å"God of masculine fertility!† Langdon was stunned. â€Å"It says so on every box of Amon condoms.† The muscular man gave a wide grin. â€Å"It’s got a guy with a ram’s head on the front and says he’s the Egyptian god of fertility.† Langdon was not familiar with the brand name, but he was glad to hear the prophylactic manufacturers had gotten their hieroglyphs right. â€Å"Well done. Amon is indeed represented as a man with a ram’s head, and his promiscuity and curved horns are related to our modern sexual slang’ horny. â€Å"No shit!† â€Å"No shit,† Langdon said. â€Å"And do you know who Amon’s counterpart was? The Egyptian goddessof fertility?† The question met with several seconds of silence. â€Å"It was Isis,† Langdon told them, grabbing a grease pen. â€Å"So we have the male god, Amon.† He wrote it down. â€Å"And the female goddess, Isis, whose ancient pictogram was once called L’ISA.† Langdon finished writing and stepped back from the projector. AMON L’ISA â€Å"Ring any bells?† he asked. â€Å"Mona Lisa†¦ holy crap,† somebody gasped. Langdon nodded. â€Å"Gentlemen, not only does the face of Mona Lisa look androgynous, but her name is an anagram of the divine union of male and female. And that, my friends, is Da Vinci’s little secret, and the reason for Mona Lisa’s knowing smile.† â€Å"My grandfather was here,† Sophie said, dropping suddenly to her knees, now only ten feet from the Mona Lisa.She pointed the black light tentatively to a spot on the parquet floor. At first Langdon saw nothing. Then, as he knelt beside her, he saw a tiny droplet of dried liquid that was luminescing. Ink? Suddenly he recalled what black lights were actually used for. Blood. His senses tingled. Sophie was right. Jacques Sauniere had indeed paid a visit to the Mona Lisabefore he died. â€Å"He wouldn’t have come here without a reason,† Sophie whispered, standing up. â€Å"I know he left a message for me here.† Quickly striding the final few steps to the Mona Lisa, she illuminated the floor directly in front of the painting. She waved the light back and forth across the bare parquet. â€Å"There’s nothing here!† At that moment, Langdon saw a faint purple glimmer on the protective glass before the Mona Lisa. Reaching down, he took Sophie’s wrist and slowly moved the light up to the painting itself. They both froze. On the glass, six words glowed in purple, scrawled directly across the Mona Lisa’s face. CHAPTER 27 Seated at Sauniere’s desk, Lieutenant Collet pressed the phone to his ear in disbelief. Did I hearFache correctly?† A bar of soap? But how could Langdon have known about the GPS dot?† â€Å"Sophie Neveu,† Fache replied. â€Å"She told him.† â€Å"What! Why?† â€Å"Damned good question, but I just heard a recording that confirms she tipped him off.† Collet was speechless. What was Neveu thinking? Fache had proof that Sophie had interfered with a DCPJ sting operation? Sophie Neveu was not only going to be fired, she was also going to jail. â€Å"But, Captain†¦ then where is Langdon now?† â€Å"Have any fire alarms gone off there?† â€Å"No, sir.† â€Å"And no one has come out under the Grand Gallery gate?† â€Å"No. We’ve got a Louvre security officer on the gate. Just as you requested.† â€Å"Okay, Langdon must still be inside the Grand Gallery.† â€Å"Inside? But what is he doing?† â€Å"Is the Louvre security guard armed?† â€Å"Yes, sir. He’s a senior warden.† â€Å"Send him in,† Fache commanded. â€Å"I can’t get my men back to the perimeter for a few minutes, and I don’t want Langdon breaking for an exit.† Fache paused. â€Å"And you’d better tell the guard Agent Neveu is probably in there with him.† â€Å"Agent Neveu left, I thought.† â€Å"Did you actually see her leave?† â€Å"No, sir, but – â€Å"Well, nobody on the perimeter saw her leave either. They only saw her go in.† Collet was flabbergasted by Sophie Neveu’s bravado. She’s still inside the building? â€Å"Handle it,† Fache ordered. â€Å"I want Langdon and Neveu at gunpoint by the time I get back.† As the Trailor truck drove off, Captain Fache rounded up his men. Robert Langdon had proven an elusive quarry tonight, and with Agent Neveu now helping him, he might be far harder to corner than expected. Fache decided not to take any chances. Hedging his bets, he ordered half of his men back to the Louvre perimeter. The other half he sent to guard the only location in Paris where Robert Langdon could find safe harbor. CHAPTER 28 Inside the Salle des Etats, Langdon stared in astonishment at the six words glowing on the Plexiglas. The text seemed to hover in space, casting a jagged shadow across Mona Lisa’s mysterious smile. â€Å"The Priory,† Langdon whispered. â€Å"This proves your grandfather was a member!† Sophie looked at him in confusion. â€Å"You understand this?† â€Å"It’s flawless,† Langdon said, nodding as his thoughts churned. â€Å"It’s a proclamation of one of the Priory’s most fundamental philosophies!† Sophie looked baffled in the glow of the message scrawled across the Mona Lisa’s face. SO DARK THE CON OF MAN â€Å"Sophie,† Langdon said,† the Priory’s tradition of perpetuating goddess worship is based on a belief that powerful men in the early Christian church ‘conned’ the world by propagating lies that devalued the female and tipped the scales in favor of the masculine.† Sophie remained silent, staring at the words.† The Priory believes that Constantine and his male successors successfully converted the world from matriarchal paganism to patriarchal Christianity by waging a campaign of propaganda that demonized the sacred feminine, obliterating the goddess from modern religion forever.† Sophie’s expression remained uncertain. â€Å"My grandfather sent me to this spot to find this. He must be trying to tell me more than that.† Langdon understood her meaning. She thinks this is another code.Whether a hidden meaning existed here or not, Langdon could not immediately say. His mind was still grappling with the bold clarity of Sauniere’s outward message. So dark the con of man, he thought. So dark indeed. Nobody could deny the enormous good the modern Church did in today’s troubled world, and yet the Church had a deceitful and violent history. Their brutal crusade to† reeducate† the pagan and feminine-worshipping religions spanned three centuries, employing methods as inspired as they were horrific. The Catholic Inquisition published the book that arguably could be called the most blood-soaked publication in human history. Malleus Maleficarum – or The Witches’ Hammer – indoctrinated the world to† the dangers of freethinking women† and instructed the clergy how to locate, torture, and destroy them. Those deemed† witches† by the Church included all female scholars, priestesses, gypsies, mystics, nature lovers, herb gatherers, and any women† suspiciously attuned to the natural world.† Midwives also were killed for their heretical practice of using medical knowledge to ease the pain of childbirth – a suffering, the Church claimed, that was God’s rightful punishment for Eve’s partaking of the Apple of Knowledge, thus giving birth to the idea of Original Sin. During three hundred years of witch hunts, the Church burned at the stake an astounding five million women. The propaganda and bloodshed had worked. Today’s world was living proof. Women, once celebrated as an essential half of spiritual enlightenment, had been banished from the temples of the world. There were no female Orthodox rabbis, Catholic priests, nor Islamic clerics. The once hallowed act of Hieros Gamos – the natural sexual union between man and woman through which each became spiritually whole – had been recast as a shameful act. Holy men who had once required sexual union with their female counterparts to commune with God now feared their natural sexual urges as the work of the devil, collaborating with his favorite accomplice†¦ woman. Not even the feminine association with the left-hand side could escape the Church’s defamation. In France and Italy, the words for† left† – gauche and sinistra – came to have deeply negative overtones, while their right-hand counterparts rang of righteousness, dexterity, and correctness. To this day, radical thought was considered left wing, irrational thought was left brain, and anything evil, sinister. The days of the goddess were over. The pendulum had swung. Mother Earth had become a man’s world, and the gods of destruction and war were taking their toll. The male ego had spent two millennia running unchecked by its female counterpart. The Priory of Sion believed that it was this obliteration of the sacred feminine in modern life that had caused what the Hopi Native Americans called koyanisquatsi – â€Å"life out of balance† – an unstable situation marked by testosterone-fueled wars, a plethora of misogynistic societies, and a growing disrespect for Mother Earth. â€Å"Robert!† Sophie said, her whisper yanking him back. â€Å"Someone’s coming!† He heard the approaching footsteps out in the hallway.† Over here!† Sophie extinguished the black light and seemed to evaporate before Langdon’s eyes. For an instant he felt totally blind. Over where! As his vision cleared he saw Sophie’s silhouette racing toward the center of the room and ducking out of sight behind the octagonal viewing bench. He was about to dash after her when a booming voice stopped him cold. â€Å"Arretez!† a man commanded from the doorway. The Louvre security agent advanced through the entrance to the Salle des Etats, his pistol outstretched, taking deadly aim at Langdon’s chest. Langdon felt his arms raise instinctively for the ceiling. â€Å"Couchez-vous!† the guard commanded. â€Å"Lie down!† Langdon was face first on the floor in a matter of seconds. The guard hurried over and kicked his legs apart, spreading Langdon out. â€Å"Mauvaise idee, Monsieur Langdon,†he said, pressing the gun hard into Langdon’s back.† Mauvaise idee.† Face down on the parquet floor with his arms and legs spread wide, Langdon found little humor in the irony of his position. The Vitruvian Man, he thought. Face down. CHAPTER 29 Inside Saint-Sulpice, Silas carried the heavy iron votive candle holder from the altar back toward the obelisk. The shaft would do nicely as a battering ram. Eyeing the gray marble panel that covered the apparent hollow in the floor, he realized he could not possibly shatter the covering without making considerable noise. Iron on marble. It would echo off the vaulted ceilings. Would the nun hear him? She should be asleep by now. Even so, it was a chance Silas preferred not to take. Looking around for a cloth to wrap around the tip of the iron pole, he saw nothing except the altar’s linen mantle, which he refused to defile. My cloak, he thought. Knowing he was alone in the great church, Silas untied his cloak and slipped it off his body. As he removed it, he felt a sting as the wool fibers stuck to the fresh wounds on his back. Naked now, except for his loin swaddle, Silas wrapped his cloak over the end of the iron rod. Then, aiming at the center of the floor tile, he drove the tip into it. A muffled thud. The stone did not break. He drove the pole into it again. Again a dull thud, but this time accompanied by a crack. On the third swing, the covering finally shattered, and stone shards fell into a hollow area beneath the floor. A compartment! Quickly pulling the remaining pieces from the opening, Silas gazed into the void. His blood pounded as he knelt down before it. Raising his pale bare arm, he reached inside. At first he felt nothing. The floor of the compartment was bare, smooth stone. Then, feeling deeper, reaching his arm in under the Rose Line, he touched something! A thick stone tablet. Getting his fingers around the edge, he gripped it and gently lifted the tablet out. As he stood and examined his find, he realized he was holding a rough-hewn stone slab with engraved words. He felt for an instant like a modern-day Moses. As Silas read the words on the tablet, he felt surprise. He had expected the keystone to be a map, or a complex series of directions, perhaps even encoded. The keystone, however, bore the simplest of inscriptions. Job 38:11 A Bible verse? Silas was stunned with the devilish simplicity. The secret location of that which they sought was revealed in a Bible verse? The brotherhood stopped at nothing to mock the righteous! Job. Chapter thirty-eight. Verse eleven. Although Silas did not recall the exact contents of verse eleven by heart, he knew the Book of Job told the story of a man whose faith in God survived repeated tests. Appropriate, he thought, barely able to contain his excitement. Looking over his shoulder, he gazed down the shimmering Rose Line and couldn’t help but smile. There atop the main altar, propped open on a gilded book stand, sat an enormous leather-bound Bible. Up in the balcony, Sister Sandrine was shaking. Moments ago, she had been about to flee and carryout her orders, when the man below suddenly removed his cloak. When she saw his alabaster-white flesh, she was overcome with a horrified bewilderment. His broad, pale back was soaked with blood-red slashes. Even from here she could see the wounds were fresh. This man has been mercilessly whipped! She also saw the bloody cilice around his thigh, the wound beneath it dripping. What kind of God would want a body punished this way? The rituals of Opus Dei, Sister Sandrine knew, were not something she would ever understand. But that was hardly her concern at this instant. Opus Dei is searching for the keystone.How they knew of it, Sister Sandrine could not imagine, although she knew she did not have time to think. The bloody monk was now quietly donning his cloak again, clutching his prize as he moved toward the altar, toward the Bible. In breathless silence, Sister Sandrine left the balcony and raced down the hall to her quarters. Getting on her hands and knees, she reached beneath her wooden bed frame and retrieved the sealed envelope she had hidden there years ago. Tearing it open, she found four Paris phone numbers. Trembling, she began to dial. Downstairs, Silas laid the stone tablet on the altar and turned his eager hands to the leather Bible. His long white fingers were sweating now as he turned the pages. Flipping through the Old Testament, he found the Book of Job. He located chapter thirty-eight. As he ran his finger down the column of text, he anticipated the words he was about to read. They will lead the way! Finding verse number eleven, Silas read the text. It was only seven words. Confused, he read it again, sensing something had gone terribly wrong. The verse simply read: HITHERTO SHALT THOU COME, BUT NO FURTHER. How to cite The Da Vinci Code Chapter 24-29, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Marketing Intercontinental Hotels Resorts â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Marketing Intercontinental Hotels Resorts? Answer: Introduction InterContinental hotels and resorts are well-established hotel group in United Kingdom. The group has more than 180 hotels, which are situated in over 60 nations worldwide. Since more than 70 years, this brand is one of the major luxurious hotel brands in the world. The hotel organization is very popular because of its excellent hospitality services and operations. The company is engaged in green activities and operations (InterContinental Hotels Resorts, 2017). In addition, it is engaged in responsible business by conducting various environment friendly activities, like; online sustainability systems, green engage system etc. This report includes different service aspects for InterContinental Hotels and Resorts. It presents the services of organization by creating a service blueprint for the organization. From the flow charts of previous assessment, it includes functions of front stage and back stage departments. In addition, it discusses the moments of truth of the service organiz ation and there are some determinants of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. At the end, the report describes the service-recovery strategy plan for InterContinental Hotels. Blue Print for Service Organization Service blueprint is a diagram for representing the services process of a services organization. A service blueprint includes various aspects of service process, like; process of service offering, customer contact points and evidence of the services for the customers perspective. Service blueprint works as a tool, which offers guidance to the organization, how a service will be offered and specifies human resource actions, physical evidence of services, infrastructure and support system that is required to deliver services (Amin Zahora Nasharuddin, 2013). Using service blueprint can be beneficial in the stage of service concept development, while planning for a new service. InterContinental Hotels and resorts are the well-known hotels in the United Kingdom hotel and hospitality industry. This hotel group ensures that all the booking and reservations will be made on the websites of hotel that provides the guests and tourists with the best prices and offers for rooms and suites according to date and choices of guests. This online reservation process assists the public to find out the affordable rate online and book the rooms confirmed in local currency of hotel organization (Baum, 2016). In creating a service blueprint, cross functional teams and customers will be engaged in demonstrating the entire hotel service. InterContinental Hotels is creating service blueprint that includes all the related aspects of the organization. The service blueprint of this hotel consists of all customer contact points, physical evidence, support processes and other related processes including customer experiences. Most of the processes at InterContinental Hotels are determined by service encounter between customers and employees (Bitner Wang, 2014). However, the hotel has successfully developed an organizational culture and structure, which assists service model of the company and has implemented effective marketing strategies to depend on this organizational culture and brand image. The below-given diagram presents the service blueprint of InterContinental Hotels. It includes various processes and components, which are stated below; Figure 1: Service Blueprint of InterContinental Hotels Actions of customers This aspect of service blueprint includes all the actions, which are taken by the customers and guests during delivery of service. In the case of InterContinental Hotels, guests actions begin from the time, when they enter into premises of hotel (Dhar, 2015). The guests are greeted at the door of hotel and taken to reception. Then after, customers interact with receptionist to check the booking in the case of online booking. The receptionist processes the check-in and registration procedure. This procedure includes the assigning the room, give the keys and sending the bags to room. In this context, the guests can visit the restaurant area of hotel and they can use other fun and entertainment activities at InterContinental (Gunarathne, 2014). Physical Evidence Physical evidence at InterContinental includes all the things, which a guest can utilize and see to affect his perception for delivery of service. At InterContinental, the guests will utilize the personality and body language of employees as physical evidence to perceive the services. In addition, physical evidence may include all the tangible elements at hotel, like; ambience, furniture and other physical evidences at hotel. Employee Actions Employee actions can be divided into two parts, like; Invisible contact employee actions and visible contact employee actions. Visible employee actions are the face to face interactions between employees and guests at hotel (Grnroos and Grnroos, 2016). At InterContinental, it includes the front office communications, like; interaction with housekeeping staff, dining facilities and entertainment and recreational activities interactions. Moreover, invisible employee actions are the indirect communication between customers and employees. At InterContinental, it includes emails and telephone calls, which are shared between employees and guests. Support processes Support processes are the processes, which are taken behind the service delivery and these processes do not include direct interaction with the guests. In the case of InterContinental Hotel, the support processes may include HR and finance processes. Supporting processes are necessary for the service to be offered (Jaakkola, Helkkula Aarikka-Stenroos, 2015). Front and back stage functions Service companies are primarily divided in two different divisions, i.e. front stage operations and back stage operations. Front stage includes all the processes, which are utilized to interact with the customers at organization. Moreover, back stage division deal with the processes and services, which are not interacted with the customers. The employees in this division have the abilities and skills of how the services are offered. Front stage and back stage operations at InterContinental Hotels are stated below; Front Stage Functions In a service organization, front stage functions make up most of the service delivery process. Front stage functions at InterContinental Hotels start with the employee actions and customer actions. It includes welcoming and greeting customers with a smiling face, checking the guests in, recording their personal information, baggage delivery, inquiring the guests etc. All these actions are front stage practices between employees and guests. In front desk operations, each and every process will deliver the physical evidence that a guest can use to make their attitude and perception regarding service (Kindstrm and Kowalkowski, 2014). InterContinental Hotel considers that front stage processes are more work-focused, because the staff needs to become multitasking and managing the guests. Figure 2: Front Stage Flow Chart Back Stage Functions Back Stage functions are the functions, which include the operations, processes by the supporting divisions in the organization. The people in back office department are the predecessor to the functions of front stage department in the process of service delivery. These activities are not seen by the guests (Lovelock Patterson, 2015). At InterContinental Hotels, the back stage operations include maintaining the information and records of customers, Finance, HR, housekeeping etc. Figure 3: Back Stage Flow Chart These functions are not experienced by the customers face to face or directly. These processes are significant for assisting the front stage operations. For instance, cleaning and better housekeeping is essential to aid the front stage operations. The organization needs to manage its front and back stage operations effectively to enhance its brand value and to attain profitability. Moments of Truth for Organization Moment of truth in service focused organizations refer to the phase of interaction between organization and customers. This type of interaction will result in creation of attitude and perception from the view of customer or leave an impression to the customers. A moment of truth determines the perception and views of customers about an organization. It develops a two way communication between organization and customers (Mattsson and Chadee, 2015). In the case of InterContinental Hotels, each and every invisible or face to face communication between employee and guest creates a moment of truth. It includes the employee actions, customer actions and invisible actions. The company is offering the facility that people can make their booking on hotels website. These online services also work as moment of truth for InterContinental Hotels. The reservation systems and website functions simultaneously form the moments of truth. At InterContinental, front stage functions form the service process of the organization, so these processes play a vital role in forming the moment of truth. At a hotel organization, moments of truth can be both good and bad as well. However, it is necessary for InterContinental Hotels and Resorts to enhance the positive and better moments of truth to become successful in the competitive hospitality industry. Identifying these positive moments of truth helps the organization in ensuring the satisfaction level o f guests and it will return to the service organization, i.e. InterContinental Hotels in the near future (Mattsson and Sderlund, 2017). Determinants of satisfaction/dissatisfaction In hospitality business, guest satisfaction is considered as a major factor for the any service organization. In this case, the service organization that is taken into consideration is InterContinental Hotels in United Kingdom. This organization operates its hotels and resorts at international level, so it is significant to maintain the higher standards of customer satisfaction through service providers. There are some key determinants, which can be used to analyze the satisfaction and dissatisfaction level of the service organization. InterContinental Hotel is also using these determinants of satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Mattsson and Chadee, 2015). Profitability Profitability of an organization indicates the success and growth level of an organization. Sales and revenues off an organization are direct factors, which determine the satisfaction of guests, who are staying at InterContinental hotels. Market Share Same as, market share is also a major factor in evaluating the customer satisfaction. InterContinental Hotels is a leading player in UK hotel industry and worldwide. The major determinant of satisfaction and success will be market share of the organization that it enjoys over its competitors in the industry, like; Holiday Inn, Staybridge Suites, Candlewood Suites etc. If the company has higher market share, then it will assist the organization in proving higher level of customer satisfaction about the services offered (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). Repeat Intention of customers Higher repeat intention of guests is also a direct determinant of satisfaction of guests at InterContinental Hotels. If the guests choose to stay at InterContinental Hotels UK again and again, it indicates that they are happy and satisfied with their services. Whenever, they travel to the city, they book the hotels under InterContinental Group, it shows that guests are satisfied with the delivery of service and brand promise. Customer referrals In the process of customer referrals, the existing customers recommend hotels services to their relatives and family if they like it and satisfied with the services. In an organization, a higher extent of customer referral shows the higher satisfaction towards services (Srensen, Sundbo and Mattsson, 2013). Customer feedback Customer feedback also works as a direct determinant of the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of guests for the services, which are offered by this service organization. An increased level of customer complaints is a red flag for the hotel. So, the organization should deal with these issues immediately because they can influence the business and its brand image. RATER Model RATER model includes five different dimensions, like; reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness. Along with this, RATER model can assist in identifying the measures of the services quality and gaps in quality of service. It assists the hotel to enhance service delivery model to get the success. By the use of RATER model, the organization can identify the gaps in service quality (Sun, Tong and Law, 2017). These gaps are like; gaps between abilities of management and knowledge and lack of confidence and trust between employees and customers, gaps between customer expectations and tangibles, possible gaps between communication between employees and guests at hotels etc. It is essential to decrease the gaps to enhance the quality of services being rendered. InterContinental Hotels makes investment in training and development program for employees. For this the company will place service recovery plan and strategies, which are stated below; Service-recovery strategy plan For a service organization, service encounters are significant moment of truth in which people generally develop everlasting impressions of organization. Good and positive service encounters are vital for the success of business operations. So, it is essential for the management to keep an insight on the service encounter and make sure that it offering high standards and quality of hospitality services to customers. Unsuccessful and unproductive service processes can lead to significant cost to the hotel by performing the service again, becoming mandatory to reimburse the guests for poor service (Sun, Tong and Law, 2017). The managers at InterContinental Hotels must make sure that service encounter at hotel is up to the mark and fulfill the needs and expectations of guests. Managers require being cautious about adverse conditions, which may generate in service delivery and make sure that they have a service recovery plan and strategies. In its service recovery plan of InterContinental hotel, the organization needs to make focus on three major areas; Interactions with Guests Services and processes Employee Management At InterContinental Hotels, if a condition arises, where a customer is dissatisfied with the services, so it is essential to take an action to recapture the trust of customers to enhance their positive attitudes and perceptions. In its service recovery plan of InterContinental Hotel, first step is for the employees to accept their faults and mistakes and apologize to the guests and management. It is significant to consider that dissatisfied guests want to be heard very closely and hopes the employees will be honestly sorry. The customers think that they are correct and generate specific expectations of staff to resolve the issues (Wong, 2013). Under service recovery strategy, another aspect is related to having a plan to resolve processes and service failure. It is essential to enhance the processes and activities, which caused adverse situations in service system. It is as significant as recovering the dissatisfied customer. The last strategy includes combination of two strategies, which is related to employee management. Training department and management should continuously educate and train the employees at hotel to become cautious about the potential adverse situations and manage their behavioral and personality traits. In brief, an effective service recovery plan needs complaint acknowledgement, apology, better steps to process suitable actions, analysis and interaction with employees and staff. Conclusion From the above report, it can be concluded that InterContinental Hotels and Resorts are adopting and implementing effective services strategies. In its services blueprint, the organization is focusing on various aspects, when the service is rendered to the guests. The report includes all the functions of front stage and back stage department of the organization. All the functions are divided into departments effectively. The service system is effective for sustainable service delivery and business. The service recovery plan will assist the organization in resolving the issues related to service failure. References Amin, M., Zahora Nasharuddin, S, 2013, Hospital service quality and its effects on patient satisfaction and behavioural intention, Clinical Governance: An International Journal,18(3), 238-254. Baum, T. ed., 2016.Human resource issues in international tourism. Elsevier. Bitner, M. J., Wang, H. S, 2014, Service encounters in service marketing research, Handbook of service marketing research,221. Dhar, R. L, 2015, Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role of organizational commitment, Tourism Management,46, 419-430. Gunarathne, U, 2014, Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Sri Lankan Hotel Industry, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 11. Grnroos, C. and Grnroos, C., 2016. Internationalization strategies for services: a retrospective.Journal of Services Marketing,30(2), pp.129-132. InterContinental Hotels Resorts, 2017, Explore InterContinental, Retrieved from https://www.ihg.com/intercontinental/content/us/en/explore. Jaakkola, E., Helkkula, A., Aarikka-Stenroos, L, 2015, Service experience co-creation: conceptualization, implications, and future research directions,Journal of Service Management,26(2), 182-205. Kindstrm, D. and Kowalkowski, C., 2014, Service innovation in business-?to-?business firms,Journal of Business Industrial Marketing,29(2). Lovelock, C., Patterson, P, 2015, Services marketing. Pearson Australia. Mattsson, J. and Chadee, D., 2015, Customer satisfaction in tourist service encounters. InProceedings of the 1995 world marketing congress(pp. 397-397). Springer International Publishing. Mattsson, J. and Sderlund, M., 2017, Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth. InQuality in Services. Mok, C., Sparks, B. and Kadampully, J., 2013, Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure. Routledge. Srensen, F., Sundbo, J. and Mattsson, J., 2013, Organisational conditions for service encounter-based innovation.Research Policy,42(8), pp.1446-1456. Sun, S., Tong, K.T. and Law, R., 2017, Chinese hotel guest perception of international chain hotels under the same hotel brand in different travel destinations: The cases of intercontinental and Sheraton.Journal of Vacation Marketing,23(2), pp.172-188. Wong, I.A., 2013, Exploring customer equity and the role of service experience in the casino service encounter.International Journal of Hospitality Management,32, pp.91-101

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Leaves Of Grass By Walt Whitman Essays - Literature,

Leaves Of Grass By Walt Whitman In the twentieth century, the name Walt Whitman has been synonymous with poetry. Whitman's most celebrated work, Leaves of Grass, was the only book he ever wrote, and he took a lifetime to write it. A large assortment of poems, it is one of the most widely criticized works in literature, and one of the most loved works as well. Whitman was unmarried and childless, and it has been noted that Leaves of Grass consumed him greatly; James E. Miller Jr. writes: "...he guided his poetic offspring through an uncertain, hesitant childhood, a lusty young manhood, and a serene old age...it is difficult to write the life of Whitman without writing instead of the life and times of his book...Whitman was the kind of parent who lives his life through his child." (Miller 15) The"poetic offspring" that Miller writes of is of course Leaves of Grass. Whitman poured his soul into the work, as he questioned himself and observed his demeanor through his writing. He "fathered" the tome, as after its initial publishing Whitman went on to release revision after revision as time progressed. Miller goes on to reflect on Whitman's methods, as he tells the reader of Whitman's curiosity towards life, particularly curious about his own meaning in the world in which he lived. "Like any individual of depth and complexity, Whitman was continuously curious about who he was...(he had) a lusty enthusiasm, a hearty relish for life lived at all times to its fullest intensity." (Miller 17) The life Whitman lived "to its fullest intensity" started in West Hills, Long Island, May 31, 1819. He was one of nine children to Walter and Louisa Whitman, his father a farmer and his mother a devout Quaker. Quakerism was the only religious inheritance the Perez 2 family passed on to Walt, and, as Miller notes, could also be seen later in his famous"sea-poem". "Out of the cradle endlessly rocking, Out of the mocking-bird's throat, the musical shuttle, Out of the Ninth-month midnight... Passage to more than India! Of secret of the earth and sky! Of you o waters of the sea! O winding creeks and rivers!... O day and night, passage to you!' (Whitman 180-294) ...His use of ?thee' and ?thou' in his poetry, his reference to the months by their sequential number (?ninth month' for September), and his instinctive adoption of the inner light?all of these Walt could trace back to his Quaker background." (Miller 17) This Quakerism also contributed to the style of Leaves, told with certain closeness and a certain emphasis paralleling that of a preacher. Miller comments on this style: "His was a day of evangelism and oratory. As a child he was no doubt frequently exposed to both. The passionate intimacy and pleading of many lines in Leaves of Grass could...have been used by an itinerant preacher..." (Miller 43) Aside from his Quaker traces, Leaves of Grass has been criticized as being an extension of Whitman's life. Just as Miller described the work as Whitman's child, John Kinnaird comments on the great level of importance at which Whitman held his masterpiece: "...Leaves of Grass suggests so much of the original existential Whitman that criticism must continue to recover and understand, particularly since this is the first poet who ever insisted that his book was in reality no book." (Kinnaird 24) Kinnaird reinforces the criticism of Miller Jr. as he emphasizes the autobiographical and introspective nature of Leaves. It seems that Whitman used this work as a release, and Perez 3 had a marvelous interpretation of life in general. He also had a unique estimation of poetry itself. In his introduction to Leaves of Grass he writes: "The power to destroy or remold, is freely used by him (the greatest poet) but never the power of attack. What is past is past. If he does not expose superior models and prove himself by every step he takes he is not what is wanted." (Whitman 8) The introduction from which the passage was taken is one of great length, with elaborative and expressive sections, in which Whitman further explains the muse behind his book, the "child" he conjured up at the time, as he was without any family of his own. James A. Wright comments on the introduction and his poetic brilliance: "Whitman's poetry has delicacy of music, of diction, and of form...I mean it to suggest powers of restraint, clarity, and wholeness, all of which taken together embody that deep spiritual inwardness...which I take to be the most

Friday, March 6, 2020

Trends in Human Resource Management

Trends in Human Resource Management Introduction It has been observed that human resource practices are characterized by certain designs and changes based on trends in the working environments. Consequently, the effect of a particular trend has resulted into implementation of a particular human resource management approach to ensure the intended purpose of effective management is realized.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Trends in Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A number of trends have been observed to contribute to the changes in human resource management and their impacts explained on the basis of staffing, training and development, salary allocation, promotion as well as career planning. Discussion Increasing health regulation by government has affected the manner in which human resource management takes place in terms of provision of free health care for employees at work place. Where such services are not offered fo r free, there has been need for the organization to allocate some resources for accomplishing this purpose. Aging workforce has ensured that positions occupied by older people are advertised so that when they retire, new employees take over from where they have left. Thus, human resource personnel have to ensure that any aged employee is replaced at the right time through recruitment and training (Rothwell, 2010). The trend of increasing and outsourcing employees or leasing employees has been applied in situation where the workforce needs to be obtained from a different place or when specific skills which are not available in an organization are needed. Increasing diversity has ensured that a particular type of people is considered when providing employment opportunities. For instance, when a company wants to employ more women than men, there will be need to ensure that more women vacancies are advertised compared to men. The trend of recruitment of multigenerational workforce has b een observed to take effect where a company needs to recruit employees of various ages in different capacities. Companies that need to recruit more youth may need to advertise the maximum age for the applicants in order to prevent certain age groups from dominating the work force (Bernardin, 2002).Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There has also been the need to increase the use of social networks in areas such as job advertisement and employee motivation. As a result, human resource administrators have made their accessibility possible in organizations to assist employees in accessing information regarding the company. It has also ensured vacant jobs are posted on social networks to ensure more potential employees get access to them. When the trends of employment requires that foreign employees are recruited, human resource managers have always ensured that th ey advertise the vacancies by making sure potential foreigners are reached. This has made the personnel in the human resource departments to focus their resources on such channels as internet and online applications to enable applicants from other countries make their applications (Barry and Hollenbeck, 2005). Global warming has contributed to recruitment of staff with pollution management skills to assist the company in making decisions regarding environmental management. These experts have been assigned the task of monitoring the levels of pollution in these companies and provide the right advice for regulation of amount of pollutants. Shortages of labor in a particular field of employment have ensured that human resource department allocate sufficient resources are channeled towards recruitment, training and orientation of employees in these areas. Stagnant economic growth in the U.S and the entire world has ensured that human resources are channeled to areas where there is possi bility of slow growth in an organization. The resources have been allocated for advertisement of goods and services, customer care improvement and quality products and services provision. References Barry, G. Hollenbeck, S. (2005) Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. London: McGraw-Hill/ Ryerson Limited. Bernardin, G. (2002). Human resource management: an experiential approach. London: London: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Trends in Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rothwell, W. (2010). Human Resource Transformation: Demonstrating Strategic Leadership in the Face of Future Trends. New York: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Aristotle's argument that women are subsidiary to men Essay

Aristotle's argument that women are subsidiary to men - Essay Example Aristotle, despite his appreciation of some attributes of women, including their intelligence, he was of the opinion that that they were subsidiary to men and because of this they had to submit themselves to men in their lives since women are â€Å"more mischievous, less simple, more impulsive... more compassionate† (Aristotle 28). Aristotle justified his opinion by actively supporting those laws that denied women the right to own property, and if they got married, with the said property it should be transferred to their husbands on such an occasion. Considering that he also believed that women had to stay only in female quarters of the household, except during extreme need, shows his belief that women had to be contained, which in essence was similar to enslaving them. Aristotle was an extremely prominent scholar of the ancient world and he had a lot to say concerning women and their subservience to men. While his writings seem to indicate that he was exceedingly liberal abou t the roles of the various sexes in many aspects of life, it is a fact that he was a believer in the inferiority of women to men (Francis 144). Despite the fact that he may have seemed to be a liberal in some matters concerning the sexes, Aristotle, being true to his era, had some positive things to say concerning women, but while he did so, he also showed that he still believed them to be subservient. It is possible that perhaps Aristotle’s teachings, which might be considered liberal, would have had a deeper meaning, displaying that while women were a gifted lot, they were supposed to remain in the background, since that was their designated place in society. This scholar was known, from time to time, to deviate from the norm concerning the role of the sexes in his society. Aristotle’s writings, while being conservative in nature, display a characteristic that was particularly common among the writers of that age; they were liberal to a certain extent and their opini ons were openly stated. However, when it came to undertaking something to change their societies so that they would conform to their liberal views, they took no action. Therefore, it can be said that although Aristotle in his writings displayed several instances of being liberal concerning the roles of the sexes in the society, most of his comments concerning this issue remained conservative â€Å"†¦.the courage of a man is shown in commanding, of a woman in obeying.† He continued to advocate for a male dominated society, supporting the role of a subservient woman, who had to submit to the will of man (Klosko 163). In a majority of his works, Aristotle displays respect for the competence of women, which is truly surprising for a man of the ancient world, where women were considered nothing more that bearers of children. Most of his works about women are based on the influence of his societal, physical and mental opinion of them. In some of his work, he states that women are much more emotional because of the belief in the ancient world that women are particularly closely tied to the earth than men. Aristotle in general shows a strong admiration for women, and he states that they are more gifted than their male counterparts. Alongside this admiration is also his belief that women are

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Culture Shock among International Students in the UK Essay

Culture Shock among International Students in the UK - Essay Example One of the biggest contributors to culture shock is the climate in the UK where individuals who come from warm environments come to experience the dampness that is prominent in the country for the first time in their lives. This is especially difficult for them to deal with during the winter months because international students have never experienced it before. The need to wear heavy clothing in order to protect themselves from the cold is always cumbersome especially in situations where they are used to light clothing. In addition, there are situations where international students come to find that the food in the UK is strange and that the familiar foods that are prominent in their home countries are hardly ever available. There are instances where these students live in self-catering accommodation and as a result of familiar food not being available and their inability to cook for the unfamiliar food that is available, they end up relying heavily on fast food. Culture shock in th is situation arises as a result of these students’ eating fast food rather than the diet that is used to, making it difficult for them to adapt to their new environment. Language is another contributor to culture shock because a large number of international students do not speak English as their first language. When they come to the UK, they often have a difficult time communicating with the local people as well as with their fellow students and tutors. The constant use of and listening to a foreign language can at times be very tiring for international students because it creates a situation where they come to feel nostalgic for their own language. Not being around people from their own countries who can speak the same language in a strange environment is often difficult for international students because they feel isolated in an unfamiliar environment.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Fraunhofer Diffraction Experiment

Fraunhofer Diffraction Experiment INTRODUCTION Diffraction is one of the most important topics in optics, it refers to a spectacle which occurs when a wave encounters an obstacle or slit in its path. The wave will then bend around the edges or corners of the obstacle or aperture, into the region of a geometrical shadow of the obstacle. The Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the diffracting object, and also when it is viewed at the focal plane of an imaging lens. In contrast, the diffraction pattern created near the object, in the near field region, is given by the Fresnel diffraction equation. If the shadow of an object cast on a screen by a small source of light is examined, it is found that the boundary of the shadow is not sharp. The light is not propagated strictly in straight lines, and peculiar patterns are produced near the edges of the shadow, which depend on the size and shape of the object. This breaking up of the light, which occurs as it passes the object, is known as diffraction and the patterns observed are called diffraction patterns. The phenomena arise because of the natural wave nature of light. Apertures and objects produce a similar effect. In Fraunhofer diffraction, a parallel beam of light passes the diffracting object in question and the effects are observed in the focal plane of a lens placed behind it. From the diagram in FIG 1, AB represents a slit whose length is perpendicular to the plane of the paper given by the distance $d$, and which parallel beam of light passes through from left to right. Per Huygenss principle, each point in the slit must be considered as a source of secondary wavelets that spread out in all directions. Now the wavelets travelling straight forward along AC, BD, and so on, will arrive at the lens in phase and will produce strong constructive interference at point O. Secondary wavelets spreading out in a direction such as AE, BF, and so on will arrive at the lens with a phase difference between successive wavelets, and the effect at P will depend on whether this phase difference causes destructive interference or not. It will be noticed that there will always be a bright fringe at the centre of the diffraction pattern. The separation of the diffraction bands increases as the width of the slit is reduced; with a wide slit the bands are so close together that they are not readily noticeable. The separation also depends on the wavelength of light, being greater for longer wavelengths. In the case of the slit shown in the diagram, the first dark line at P is in a direction $theta$ such that BG is one wavelength, $lambda$. If d is the width of the slit, then $theta = lambda/d$. This is assuming the angle is so small then $sin(theta) approx theta$. EXPERIMENTS In these sets of experiments a low power (0.5 mW) Helium-neon laser is used as the source of light. The laser light produced by the laser used is coherent and parallel, but for these sets of experiments the beams diameter is far too small. To get around this problem a beam expander arrangement is set up in front of the laser source to expand the beam to a larger width before hitting the object being examined. From FIG 2 it can be seen that the biconcave lens A causes the beam to diverge, and appear to emerge from the point X in the focal plane of the lens A. If a second lens B with focal length $f_B$ and place it $f_B$ away from X as shown, the outputted laser light will be parallel again, but it will have a large width. The output of this beam is used to examine Fraunhofer diffraction patterns produced under various circumstances, viewing the resulting patterns on a white screen or with the use of a photodetector to detect beam intensity at varying locations. A good bit of time is spend aligning the laser to be as close to the center of the lenses as possible and therefore careful note is taken for where each position of the lenses stands are set, this will help with consistency between different days and if the apparatus is tampered with. The distance from the object being examined to the photodetector was kept at a constant $(0.53pm 0.01)m$ throughout all experiments carried out. SINGLE SLIT The first object to be examined is the simple single slit. Setting up a variable slit in the object path the slit width can be adjusted allowing investigation of slit width and intensity to be measured. The intensity distribution on the screen is given by the equation, The resulting laser beam from the beam expander passes through the single slit then through another lens to focus on a detector screen. Placing a white sheet of paper on this screen the maximas can easily be seen by eye allowing simple marks to be placed where they are. These marks then can be easily measured with a set of digital callipers, which have a measurement uncertainty of $pm$0.02mm for measurements less than 100mm and $pm$0.02mm for less than 200mmcite{digitalcalipers}. It is seen that for a varying single slit the separation of the diffraction bands increases as the width of the slit is reduced; with a wide slit the bands are so close together that they are not readily noticeable. This is as expected from the predicted theory. Using a single non-variable slit as the object, the resulting slit separation can be calculated. This is done by taking the measurements from the central maximum and plotting them against their order. This relation is given by Youngs equation,  where $y_m$ is the distance from the central maxima for the mth order fringe, $lambda$ is the wavelength of laser light used, $D$ is the distance from the object to the screen and $a$ is the slit width. Plotting the values of $y_m$ versus the corresponding order value $m$ the resulting line of best fit is the value of $frac{lambda D}{a}$, with the use of the known constant the value of $a$ can be determined. This calculation is easily done with MATLAB which would give a more accurate result than hand drawing a graph, using the function $nlinfit$ the error in the line of best fit can be obtained and thus the uncertainty in the measurement of the slit width. Each value for $y_m$ is taken multiple times to reduce reading uncertainty and also the marking of maxima on the paper is repeated to further reduce reading uncertainty. From measurements taken the calculated value for the slit width was found to be $(7.31pm 0.39)cdot10^{-5}m$, this agrees with typical values for a single slit which are in the order of Nano meters. At this point it was found that the photodetector didnt function properly. Trying to measure intensity it was seen that the measured value was negative. It was also not notable to see second and third maximas, just the central maxima could be clearly detectable. Many attempts were made to correct this, re alignment of the laser had very little effect. Ensuring the room was constantly dark to try to eliminate the background light was also tested, but again no improvement in the reading. It was decided to stop taking any measurements of the intensities for the remaining experiments. MULTIPLE SLITS An arrangement consisting of many parallel slits, of the same width and separated by equal distance is known as a Diffraction grating. When the spacing between the lines is of the order of the wavelength of light, then a noticeable deviation of the light is produced. The intensity of light can be adapted from one single slit to a generalisation for N number of slits, the distribution for N number of slits is given by, The $sin^2beta/beta^2$ term is describing the diffraction from each individual slit. While the $(sin^2(NY))/(sin^2(Y))$ describes the interference for the N slits, and so this gives a maximum and minimum where, Each diffraction grating was placed in the source holder one by one and the outputted diffraction patterns on the detector screen were observed. It was found to be that the second maxima were weaker as the number of slits on the source was increased and the central maxima became sharper. Grating with 6 slits was found to be the sharpest central image while the slit with only 2 was the weakest. ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONAL One dimensional gratings can now be used to examine the difference in slit width and to examine the difference in diffraction patterns observed, for this part there were three unknown one dimensional gratings to be examined. The gratings were loaded in one by one and marking the central maximum and other maximum observed on the screen the distances can be measured allowing slit width to be calculated. It was observed that the different gratings gave a different spread of maxima on the screen. For a one dimensional grating the measurements were repeated 3 times for three different gratings. The same method is used to calculate the slit distance as in the single slit experiment. The measurements for the gratings widths were found to be, $(6.90pm 0.51)cdot10^{-5}m$, $(2.37pm 0.46)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(1.49pm 0.14)cdot10^{-5}m$. All these values lie within the expected range for a slit to diffract light. To measure the output of the two-dimensional grating we can model it as two one dimensional problems. Measuring the maxima in one direction then again in the other direction, these two can be compared and should be with in similar value is the grating is equally spaced in both directions. Results were found to be $(5.84pm 2.62)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(5.24pm 2.62 CONCLUSION All parts of the experiments were carried out effectively and for all parts of the experiment data was collected and analysed. For a single slit of unknown width the calculated value for it was found to be $(7.31pm 0.39)cdot10^{-5}m$, which is in the right order of magnitude for a single slit resulting in light diffracting. Also observing multiple slits on a source was found to show that the second maxima were weaker as the number of slits on the source was increased and the central maxima became sharper. Finally, a one and two-dimensional grating was analysed to calculate wire separation. It was found for the one dimension samples the separation width was $(6.90pm 0.51)cdot10^{-5}m$, $(2.37pm 0.46)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(1.49pm 0.14)cdot10^{-5}m$ and for the two dimensional it was found that in each directions the width was $(5.84pm 2.62)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(5.24pm 2.62)cdot10^{-5}m$. Unfortunately, the photodetector did not work accordingly. The values obtained from one measurement did not match with values obtained later or on different days. Attempts were made to try and improve readings; keeping room constantly pitch black and realignment of the mirrors. It was decided to stop taking detector measurements.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Human Resource Management Challenge Essay

As human resource development manager, will make a meeting with main office staff and discuss to create new policy rules and regulation according company working basement and working time, strict rules to department supervisor and line leader must be responsible on product operating and department cleanness environment, main leaders must coaching new operator the basic rules and company working style well. Fixing CCTV camera at whole area of company environment to avoid illegal activities and control the situation every time. Arrange company official bus transport to all the staff to make easy facilities to cover the duration of travelling for those staying far and cover accident. According to company rules all the staff need be corporate with management and department leaders to run the company well and helping each other during working time, any information regarding company issues, product, celebration must be arrange a meeting to inform all the stuff to avoiding misunderstood and conflict. Each every time department supervisor have taken action on neglect working stuff and inform to the management and always make daily working report to show the production result and situation, good working stuff will be offer special features, as increasing wages and much more, arrange canteen or rest room to all staff to they safety. The human resource or HR department is instrumental in implementing effective organization development. The human workers of an organization are perhaps its most important assets. The successful management of these valuable human resources will drive the organization to optimum success. The various roles of HR organization development must be implemented in alignment with the overall strategic planning of the organization. As employers and workers and trade unions representing them for several responsible for good industrial relations, the first step is for both management and trade unions to accept the highest level, the same degree of person responsibility for industrial relations as for other functions within their respective organizations. Good industrial relations need to be developed within the framework of efficiency of the establishment or undertaking. As such, a major objective of management must be to develop and effective personal and industrial relations policies which engender the confidence of all employees, subject to the purpose for which the establishment or undertaking was establish and its social obligations to the nation equally trade unions should ensure that the policies and practices that they adopt are not only fair in relation to the function and purpose for which they been formed but also take into consideration national interest. Ground rules are established to keep an organization guided and controlled. At times that certain rules are choking to the neck. This may be gorunds for conflict between employees and the management. Whenever and individual feels that there are inconsistencies and irrationalities in the workplace, tendency is the person truggles to break free from such process. For employees, it may take an effort to really understand that such rules is a way of maintaining standards in the company. But this should be well-implemented andproperly disseminated by the management in a way that will not seem like a threat to the inviduals. To build inclusive and harmonious workplaces, both employees and managers play important roles. Organisations should equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills, and encourage them to display attributes and behaviours can build competencies to foster inclusive and harmonious workplace by embedding them in formal HR practices recruitment – hiring candidates which in with fit in which the organisation’s values on inclusiveness learning and development – equipping employees with the knowledge and skills to work effectively in diverse teams performance management – assessing employees on their ability to work effectively in a diverse team or manage a diverse team organisations should adopt recruitment policies which are consistent with the tripartite guideling on fair employees practices to build an inclusive and harmonious workplace, organisations need to recruit candidates who are able to work with or ead diverse teams team department are also provided with a allowance every quarter to plan their own gatherings and team building activities. To help new employees assimilate into organization muvee provides support to newly arrived foreign employees, helps them with accommodation arrangement, administrative requirement and share with them places to eat or visit in Singapore. An employee portal on the internet also allows new employees to quickly get acquainted with other in the company , organisations which already have employee awards in place can consider including values and behaviours that fster inclusive and harmonious workplace as part of the awards critera ANSWER SECTION ONE (B) As agency of training and development, human resource department are important facilities to every business to handling company daily situation, and working activities. Human resource department are responsible to covered company programmed running and all the organization in perfect way in all the time. However, HR department creating new style and activities among staff to make new outcome to run company and control all the activities well , to generating new era with company and staff, HR are mostly focusing on administrative creating new way to organization and for company, HR department are mostly responsible and protection for company basement and organization. It included skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career and advancement. Planning by professionally developing with each employee and implementing that planning to an effective performance management system. Human resources and staff development will continue to focus on developing strategic initiatives and providing services and consultation which improve business performance for the greatest and effiency . Staff will continue to participate in the review of organization structures on a consultancy basis and address issues relative to the corporate culture and values. The human resource management functions no longer have merely a transactional role. There is a requirement for the human resource department to become more strategic in the practice employees will have safe and supportive workplace. Every business needs a safety plan. Objective develop a safety checklist and operate the business to ensure all safety regulations are met. Reduce workplace injuries to zero. nvolve employees through an internal committee or team in making their environment a safe place to work. Support health and wellness programs through an optional, additional-cost, benefit program. Strategy the safe and supportive workplace goal will be supported by a company program to engage employees in individuals health practices and improvement and work programs and work-from home progams. ensure the at work environment is ergonomically best. Measures of success reductions in injury reduction in time off request reduction in absenreeism related on the job accommodation program regular safety inspections regular safety meetings with employees regular ergonomic assessments. Good human resource planning and management will result in good report and communications between employees and the management. It will also result in individual employees development plans low employees turn over low absenteeism low safety incident, competitive employees compensations programs including basic employees benefits high morale good quality output and efficient operations, well trained employees and satisfied customers. Salary competitveness witin the industy and basic employee benefit need to be reviewed regularly likely at least every two year. The plan needs to indentify hiring and promotion policies and employee development plans for improving employees performance. The purpose of the Training and Development Program is to provide consultation curriculum and training services ti pinal country employees so they can improve their professional skill set to advance the country priorities and delier the best services possible to pinal country residents, 70% of trained employees who demonstrate improvement skill knowledge through pre and post training testing. 10% of pinal country employees that complete a job related degree though the tuition reimbursement program per consultation provided. 80% of pinal country employees who have completed any franklin covey training program offered through hr, that show an improved evaluation of job performance between the pre& post assessment by managers. (SECTION TWO) As HR department working for company long –term in all the ways, to create new techniques and capability to cover organization to improve company basement and development, company are now looking for more high quality new out come product and new strategic. Human resource are plays the essential role in developing company very well by handling all the employee activities of an organization , company in beginning of growth phases can be benefited identifying training needs for existing staff. The strategies that also can reduce turnover and improve employee retention. HR department are mostly responsible company programed to make advance future facilities and development. HR department processes are in several type of function, time management, travelling management, workforce planning and recruitment. Department of human resource is responsible for monitoring effectiveness of agency or department recruitment and selection procedure in accordance with applicable policies and law. The organization engages in strategic planning to keep itself for the future. Since component of the strategic planning the foundation for workforce planning, leaders are advised to start by creating or updated organization strategic planning to beginning the workforce planning process well. The important of strategic planning and developing public and non profit organization once looked at strategic planning as designed strictly for the profit sector with goal of increasing sales and profit margins, improvement customer satisfaction and creating good efficiency. Strategic Strategic human resource managementVertical and horizontal alignment of corporate policies- A conceptual framework| lanning can be defined to a clear current, mission and vision that are easy to communicated and understanding and ownership of the mission and vision in all parts of the organization and critical assessment of the environment in which the organization operate Analysis of internal environment analysis of external enviroment Statement of country’s mission and strategic objectives HR objectives and strategic Function – specific HR policies and practice Recruitment / retention / succession management| Job evaluation/ Compensation reward issues| Employee benefits / payroll| Training & development| Result performance management & labour relations| (SECTION THREE ANSWER) The turn of the century has been increased focus on the same in organization globally. Many organizations have mandated training hours per year for employee keeping consideration the fact that technology is des killing the employee at a very fast rate. The training developing our administrators and staff are among the most important things. in this rapidly changing environment, employees are constantly being called up on to learn new skill to work in new and different ways and to charge directions at a moment notice. The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long –term profitability of a small business. Human resource management is the function witin an organization that focuses on recruitment of management and providing direction for the people who work in the organization can also be performed by line managers. HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management organization development safety wellness benefit employee motivation communication administrative and training. HRM a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives . HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and  transitional  roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate value. The HRM is arts and knowledge, the running needs supporter which called staffs and are human resource of the organization. HR can improve the level of management and execution. It is important during period of management. It is important to improving HRM in the importance of organization development. Human resources are the people that work for an organisation, and Human Resource Management is concerned with how these people are managed. However, the term Human Resource Management (HRM) has come to mean more than this because people are different from the other resources that work for an organisation. People have thoughts and feelings, aspirations and needs. The term HRM has thus come to refer to an approach, which takes into account both:   1. the needs of the organisation 2. the needs of its people. Different individuals have their own needs and aspirations. HRM therefore involves finding out about the needs and aspirations of individual employees, for example through the appraisal process and then creating the opportunities within the organisation (e. g. through job enlargement) and outside the organisation (e. g. through taking up educational opportunities at local colleges/universities) for employees to improve themselves. HRM therefore relates to every aspect of the way in which the organisation interacts with its people, e. g. y providing training and development opportunities, appraisal to find out about individual needs. Opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help the organization to achieve its objectives. Development – the provision of opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help themselves to achieve personal objectives. Training and development needs analysis – an analysis of the opportunities and experiences that are required for individuals to train and develop in order to meet organizational and personal objectives. A training and development plan can then be created to set out how these needs can be addressed in practical steps. Audi has developed a training and development programmed designed for technicians at the company. Technicians are appraised by their line managers to identify their personal training and development needs. They then work with professional consultants on development training activities as well as attending relevant courses either at the Audi training center or on external courses. The technicians are able to use a multimedia based Training Needs Analysis tool that enables them to produce a Personal Development Plan automatically. A human resources training and development plan is a written document. Work with manager to identify training and development needs and create a plan to address those needs. At many organizations, the human resources department provides a template for the plan that includes all of the necessary information. Some organizations include training and development plan in annual review. According to the website Management Help, a training and development plan should include certain components. The first component is the training goal, which refers to the overall results that hope to achieve. The learning objectives describe what will be able to do as a result of the training. The learning methods are the activities that will do in order to achieve the objectives. The documentation refers to the evidence of learning activity. The evaluation assesses the quality of results. Before start, it should lso consider the necessary budget and set a timeline to complete to plan. The National Center for Training, Support and Technical Assistance states that training and developments plans focus on three different types of learning gaps or needs. The most common are performance gaps, professional growth gaps and opportunity gaps. Performance gaps happen when a worker lacks the necessary skills to do his job. Professional growth gaps refer to more general skills that an employee would like to develop. Opportunity gaps refer to what an employee needs to learn in order to be promoted to a new position. To create a training and development plan, start by assessing your needs. At annual review or at another appropriate time, discuss with your manager the things that need to learn in order to do your job better. Also consider what would like to learn in order to prepare yourself for a promotion. After select the skills that would like to develop, consult with the human resources department to determine what types of training and development are available. They will help measure skills, select an appropriate training method, and establish the level of imporvement. Training and development programs have a positive impact on organizations. They increase job satisfaction, motivation and morale, which reduces employee turnover. A company with low employee turnover becomes more efficient and also saves significant money in the cost of hiring and training new employees. Consistent training also helps companies stay up to date with new technologies. Compaines may also keep past training and development plans on file to measure how much an employee improves Human resource departments typically conduct activities designed to train and develop company personnel, whether to address performance problems or help prepare an employee for a management role. In addition to formal training courses (such as instructor-led sessions, web-based training and seminars) should offer flexible alternatives such as coaching, mentoring and job-rotation experiences. Developing employee capacity involves managing programs such as employee orientation sessions, policy and procedure awareness sessions, leadership development workshops and other options designed to enable company (and employees) to succeed. Structure training and development department to support associates. Offer training opportunities to those who fail performance appraisals. Encourage employees to develop their professional skills by offering courses at work. Create executive leadership development programs to allow learning new skills necessary to take on management responsibilities. Conduct awareness sessions about new policies and procedures as well as to ensure compliance to local, state and federal regulations. Develop customized training courses for employees. Cover specific details about business. Courses in communication, customer service, diversity, ethics, quality and safety typically allow people to function more effectively on the job. Focus on a particular topic such as cultural intelligence for a month at a time. Schedule related activities to promote awareness. Develop templates, job aids, demonstrations and simulations to support employees in working in a consistent manner across company. Establishing a good image both within the company and with customers and business partners depends on a well-trained workforce. Provide access to training courses through a Learning Management System (administrative software) so students can register and access training materials any time they need them. Ensure employees create an annual development plan to establish development objectives and focus learning on activities that align to company’s strategic goals. Get executive sponsorship for any training initiative establish so that can procure the necessary funding and budget allocation required. Evaluate training and development programs to ensure they are meeting employee and company needs. Training and development opportunities typically lead to increased job satisfaction and motivation. Employee efficiencies result in operational cost savings and increased capacity, resulting in company financial gains. Learning new technologies and techniques for getting work done also improves operational metrics. Training activities can also increase employee retention rates.