Monday, January 27, 2020

Fraunhofer Diffraction Experiment

Fraunhofer Diffraction Experiment INTRODUCTION Diffraction is one of the most important topics in optics, it refers to a spectacle which occurs when a wave encounters an obstacle or slit in its path. The wave will then bend around the edges or corners of the obstacle or aperture, into the region of a geometrical shadow of the obstacle. The Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the diffracting object, and also when it is viewed at the focal plane of an imaging lens. In contrast, the diffraction pattern created near the object, in the near field region, is given by the Fresnel diffraction equation. If the shadow of an object cast on a screen by a small source of light is examined, it is found that the boundary of the shadow is not sharp. The light is not propagated strictly in straight lines, and peculiar patterns are produced near the edges of the shadow, which depend on the size and shape of the object. This breaking up of the light, which occurs as it passes the object, is known as diffraction and the patterns observed are called diffraction patterns. The phenomena arise because of the natural wave nature of light. Apertures and objects produce a similar effect. In Fraunhofer diffraction, a parallel beam of light passes the diffracting object in question and the effects are observed in the focal plane of a lens placed behind it. From the diagram in FIG 1, AB represents a slit whose length is perpendicular to the plane of the paper given by the distance $d$, and which parallel beam of light passes through from left to right. Per Huygenss principle, each point in the slit must be considered as a source of secondary wavelets that spread out in all directions. Now the wavelets travelling straight forward along AC, BD, and so on, will arrive at the lens in phase and will produce strong constructive interference at point O. Secondary wavelets spreading out in a direction such as AE, BF, and so on will arrive at the lens with a phase difference between successive wavelets, and the effect at P will depend on whether this phase difference causes destructive interference or not. It will be noticed that there will always be a bright fringe at the centre of the diffraction pattern. The separation of the diffraction bands increases as the width of the slit is reduced; with a wide slit the bands are so close together that they are not readily noticeable. The separation also depends on the wavelength of light, being greater for longer wavelengths. In the case of the slit shown in the diagram, the first dark line at P is in a direction $theta$ such that BG is one wavelength, $lambda$. If d is the width of the slit, then $theta = lambda/d$. This is assuming the angle is so small then $sin(theta) approx theta$. EXPERIMENTS In these sets of experiments a low power (0.5 mW) Helium-neon laser is used as the source of light. The laser light produced by the laser used is coherent and parallel, but for these sets of experiments the beams diameter is far too small. To get around this problem a beam expander arrangement is set up in front of the laser source to expand the beam to a larger width before hitting the object being examined. From FIG 2 it can be seen that the biconcave lens A causes the beam to diverge, and appear to emerge from the point X in the focal plane of the lens A. If a second lens B with focal length $f_B$ and place it $f_B$ away from X as shown, the outputted laser light will be parallel again, but it will have a large width. The output of this beam is used to examine Fraunhofer diffraction patterns produced under various circumstances, viewing the resulting patterns on a white screen or with the use of a photodetector to detect beam intensity at varying locations. A good bit of time is spend aligning the laser to be as close to the center of the lenses as possible and therefore careful note is taken for where each position of the lenses stands are set, this will help with consistency between different days and if the apparatus is tampered with. The distance from the object being examined to the photodetector was kept at a constant $(0.53pm 0.01)m$ throughout all experiments carried out. SINGLE SLIT The first object to be examined is the simple single slit. Setting up a variable slit in the object path the slit width can be adjusted allowing investigation of slit width and intensity to be measured. The intensity distribution on the screen is given by the equation, The resulting laser beam from the beam expander passes through the single slit then through another lens to focus on a detector screen. Placing a white sheet of paper on this screen the maximas can easily be seen by eye allowing simple marks to be placed where they are. These marks then can be easily measured with a set of digital callipers, which have a measurement uncertainty of $pm$0.02mm for measurements less than 100mm and $pm$0.02mm for less than 200mmcite{digitalcalipers}. It is seen that for a varying single slit the separation of the diffraction bands increases as the width of the slit is reduced; with a wide slit the bands are so close together that they are not readily noticeable. This is as expected from the predicted theory. Using a single non-variable slit as the object, the resulting slit separation can be calculated. This is done by taking the measurements from the central maximum and plotting them against their order. This relation is given by Youngs equation,  where $y_m$ is the distance from the central maxima for the mth order fringe, $lambda$ is the wavelength of laser light used, $D$ is the distance from the object to the screen and $a$ is the slit width. Plotting the values of $y_m$ versus the corresponding order value $m$ the resulting line of best fit is the value of $frac{lambda D}{a}$, with the use of the known constant the value of $a$ can be determined. This calculation is easily done with MATLAB which would give a more accurate result than hand drawing a graph, using the function $nlinfit$ the error in the line of best fit can be obtained and thus the uncertainty in the measurement of the slit width. Each value for $y_m$ is taken multiple times to reduce reading uncertainty and also the marking of maxima on the paper is repeated to further reduce reading uncertainty. From measurements taken the calculated value for the slit width was found to be $(7.31pm 0.39)cdot10^{-5}m$, this agrees with typical values for a single slit which are in the order of Nano meters. At this point it was found that the photodetector didnt function properly. Trying to measure intensity it was seen that the measured value was negative. It was also not notable to see second and third maximas, just the central maxima could be clearly detectable. Many attempts were made to correct this, re alignment of the laser had very little effect. Ensuring the room was constantly dark to try to eliminate the background light was also tested, but again no improvement in the reading. It was decided to stop taking any measurements of the intensities for the remaining experiments. MULTIPLE SLITS An arrangement consisting of many parallel slits, of the same width and separated by equal distance is known as a Diffraction grating. When the spacing between the lines is of the order of the wavelength of light, then a noticeable deviation of the light is produced. The intensity of light can be adapted from one single slit to a generalisation for N number of slits, the distribution for N number of slits is given by, The $sin^2beta/beta^2$ term is describing the diffraction from each individual slit. While the $(sin^2(NY))/(sin^2(Y))$ describes the interference for the N slits, and so this gives a maximum and minimum where, Each diffraction grating was placed in the source holder one by one and the outputted diffraction patterns on the detector screen were observed. It was found to be that the second maxima were weaker as the number of slits on the source was increased and the central maxima became sharper. Grating with 6 slits was found to be the sharpest central image while the slit with only 2 was the weakest. ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONAL One dimensional gratings can now be used to examine the difference in slit width and to examine the difference in diffraction patterns observed, for this part there were three unknown one dimensional gratings to be examined. The gratings were loaded in one by one and marking the central maximum and other maximum observed on the screen the distances can be measured allowing slit width to be calculated. It was observed that the different gratings gave a different spread of maxima on the screen. For a one dimensional grating the measurements were repeated 3 times for three different gratings. The same method is used to calculate the slit distance as in the single slit experiment. The measurements for the gratings widths were found to be, $(6.90pm 0.51)cdot10^{-5}m$, $(2.37pm 0.46)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(1.49pm 0.14)cdot10^{-5}m$. All these values lie within the expected range for a slit to diffract light. To measure the output of the two-dimensional grating we can model it as two one dimensional problems. Measuring the maxima in one direction then again in the other direction, these two can be compared and should be with in similar value is the grating is equally spaced in both directions. Results were found to be $(5.84pm 2.62)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(5.24pm 2.62 CONCLUSION All parts of the experiments were carried out effectively and for all parts of the experiment data was collected and analysed. For a single slit of unknown width the calculated value for it was found to be $(7.31pm 0.39)cdot10^{-5}m$, which is in the right order of magnitude for a single slit resulting in light diffracting. Also observing multiple slits on a source was found to show that the second maxima were weaker as the number of slits on the source was increased and the central maxima became sharper. Finally, a one and two-dimensional grating was analysed to calculate wire separation. It was found for the one dimension samples the separation width was $(6.90pm 0.51)cdot10^{-5}m$, $(2.37pm 0.46)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(1.49pm 0.14)cdot10^{-5}m$ and for the two dimensional it was found that in each directions the width was $(5.84pm 2.62)cdot10^{-5}m$ and $(5.24pm 2.62)cdot10^{-5}m$. Unfortunately, the photodetector did not work accordingly. The values obtained from one measurement did not match with values obtained later or on different days. Attempts were made to try and improve readings; keeping room constantly pitch black and realignment of the mirrors. It was decided to stop taking detector measurements.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Human Resource Management Challenge Essay

As human resource development manager, will make a meeting with main office staff and discuss to create new policy rules and regulation according company working basement and working time, strict rules to department supervisor and line leader must be responsible on product operating and department cleanness environment, main leaders must coaching new operator the basic rules and company working style well. Fixing CCTV camera at whole area of company environment to avoid illegal activities and control the situation every time. Arrange company official bus transport to all the staff to make easy facilities to cover the duration of travelling for those staying far and cover accident. According to company rules all the staff need be corporate with management and department leaders to run the company well and helping each other during working time, any information regarding company issues, product, celebration must be arrange a meeting to inform all the stuff to avoiding misunderstood and conflict. Each every time department supervisor have taken action on neglect working stuff and inform to the management and always make daily working report to show the production result and situation, good working stuff will be offer special features, as increasing wages and much more, arrange canteen or rest room to all staff to they safety. The human resource or HR department is instrumental in implementing effective organization development. The human workers of an organization are perhaps its most important assets. The successful management of these valuable human resources will drive the organization to optimum success. The various roles of HR organization development must be implemented in alignment with the overall strategic planning of the organization. As employers and workers and trade unions representing them for several responsible for good industrial relations, the first step is for both management and trade unions to accept the highest level, the same degree of person responsibility for industrial relations as for other functions within their respective organizations. Good industrial relations need to be developed within the framework of efficiency of the establishment or undertaking. As such, a major objective of management must be to develop and effective personal and industrial relations policies which engender the confidence of all employees, subject to the purpose for which the establishment or undertaking was establish and its social obligations to the nation equally trade unions should ensure that the policies and practices that they adopt are not only fair in relation to the function and purpose for which they been formed but also take into consideration national interest. Ground rules are established to keep an organization guided and controlled. At times that certain rules are choking to the neck. This may be gorunds for conflict between employees and the management. Whenever and individual feels that there are inconsistencies and irrationalities in the workplace, tendency is the person truggles to break free from such process. For employees, it may take an effort to really understand that such rules is a way of maintaining standards in the company. But this should be well-implemented andproperly disseminated by the management in a way that will not seem like a threat to the inviduals. To build inclusive and harmonious workplaces, both employees and managers play important roles. Organisations should equip them with the relevant knowledge and skills, and encourage them to display attributes and behaviours can build competencies to foster inclusive and harmonious workplace by embedding them in formal HR practices recruitment – hiring candidates which in with fit in which the organisation’s values on inclusiveness learning and development – equipping employees with the knowledge and skills to work effectively in diverse teams performance management – assessing employees on their ability to work effectively in a diverse team or manage a diverse team organisations should adopt recruitment policies which are consistent with the tripartite guideling on fair employees practices to build an inclusive and harmonious workplace, organisations need to recruit candidates who are able to work with or ead diverse teams team department are also provided with a allowance every quarter to plan their own gatherings and team building activities. To help new employees assimilate into organization muvee provides support to newly arrived foreign employees, helps them with accommodation arrangement, administrative requirement and share with them places to eat or visit in Singapore. An employee portal on the internet also allows new employees to quickly get acquainted with other in the company , organisations which already have employee awards in place can consider including values and behaviours that fster inclusive and harmonious workplace as part of the awards critera ANSWER SECTION ONE (B) As agency of training and development, human resource department are important facilities to every business to handling company daily situation, and working activities. Human resource department are responsible to covered company programmed running and all the organization in perfect way in all the time. However, HR department creating new style and activities among staff to make new outcome to run company and control all the activities well , to generating new era with company and staff, HR are mostly focusing on administrative creating new way to organization and for company, HR department are mostly responsible and protection for company basement and organization. It included skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career and advancement. Planning by professionally developing with each employee and implementing that planning to an effective performance management system. Human resources and staff development will continue to focus on developing strategic initiatives and providing services and consultation which improve business performance for the greatest and effiency . Staff will continue to participate in the review of organization structures on a consultancy basis and address issues relative to the corporate culture and values. The human resource management functions no longer have merely a transactional role. There is a requirement for the human resource department to become more strategic in the practice employees will have safe and supportive workplace. Every business needs a safety plan. Objective develop a safety checklist and operate the business to ensure all safety regulations are met. Reduce workplace injuries to zero. nvolve employees through an internal committee or team in making their environment a safe place to work. Support health and wellness programs through an optional, additional-cost, benefit program. Strategy the safe and supportive workplace goal will be supported by a company program to engage employees in individuals health practices and improvement and work programs and work-from home progams. ensure the at work environment is ergonomically best. Measures of success reductions in injury reduction in time off request reduction in absenreeism related on the job accommodation program regular safety inspections regular safety meetings with employees regular ergonomic assessments. Good human resource planning and management will result in good report and communications between employees and the management. It will also result in individual employees development plans low employees turn over low absenteeism low safety incident, competitive employees compensations programs including basic employees benefits high morale good quality output and efficient operations, well trained employees and satisfied customers. Salary competitveness witin the industy and basic employee benefit need to be reviewed regularly likely at least every two year. The plan needs to indentify hiring and promotion policies and employee development plans for improving employees performance. The purpose of the Training and Development Program is to provide consultation curriculum and training services ti pinal country employees so they can improve their professional skill set to advance the country priorities and delier the best services possible to pinal country residents, 70% of trained employees who demonstrate improvement skill knowledge through pre and post training testing. 10% of pinal country employees that complete a job related degree though the tuition reimbursement program per consultation provided. 80% of pinal country employees who have completed any franklin covey training program offered through hr, that show an improved evaluation of job performance between the pre& post assessment by managers. (SECTION TWO) As HR department working for company long –term in all the ways, to create new techniques and capability to cover organization to improve company basement and development, company are now looking for more high quality new out come product and new strategic. Human resource are plays the essential role in developing company very well by handling all the employee activities of an organization , company in beginning of growth phases can be benefited identifying training needs for existing staff. The strategies that also can reduce turnover and improve employee retention. HR department are mostly responsible company programed to make advance future facilities and development. HR department processes are in several type of function, time management, travelling management, workforce planning and recruitment. Department of human resource is responsible for monitoring effectiveness of agency or department recruitment and selection procedure in accordance with applicable policies and law. The organization engages in strategic planning to keep itself for the future. Since component of the strategic planning the foundation for workforce planning, leaders are advised to start by creating or updated organization strategic planning to beginning the workforce planning process well. The important of strategic planning and developing public and non profit organization once looked at strategic planning as designed strictly for the profit sector with goal of increasing sales and profit margins, improvement customer satisfaction and creating good efficiency. Strategic Strategic human resource managementVertical and horizontal alignment of corporate policies- A conceptual framework| lanning can be defined to a clear current, mission and vision that are easy to communicated and understanding and ownership of the mission and vision in all parts of the organization and critical assessment of the environment in which the organization operate Analysis of internal environment analysis of external enviroment Statement of country’s mission and strategic objectives HR objectives and strategic Function – specific HR policies and practice Recruitment / retention / succession management| Job evaluation/ Compensation reward issues| Employee benefits / payroll| Training & development| Result performance management & labour relations| (SECTION THREE ANSWER) The turn of the century has been increased focus on the same in organization globally. Many organizations have mandated training hours per year for employee keeping consideration the fact that technology is des killing the employee at a very fast rate. The training developing our administrators and staff are among the most important things. in this rapidly changing environment, employees are constantly being called up on to learn new skill to work in new and different ways and to charge directions at a moment notice. The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long –term profitability of a small business. Human resource management is the function witin an organization that focuses on recruitment of management and providing direction for the people who work in the organization can also be performed by line managers. HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management organization development safety wellness benefit employee motivation communication administrative and training. HRM a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives . HRM is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and  transitional  roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate value. The HRM is arts and knowledge, the running needs supporter which called staffs and are human resource of the organization. HR can improve the level of management and execution. It is important during period of management. It is important to improving HRM in the importance of organization development. Human resources are the people that work for an organisation, and Human Resource Management is concerned with how these people are managed. However, the term Human Resource Management (HRM) has come to mean more than this because people are different from the other resources that work for an organisation. People have thoughts and feelings, aspirations and needs. The term HRM has thus come to refer to an approach, which takes into account both:   1. the needs of the organisation 2. the needs of its people. Different individuals have their own needs and aspirations. HRM therefore involves finding out about the needs and aspirations of individual employees, for example through the appraisal process and then creating the opportunities within the organisation (e. g. through job enlargement) and outside the organisation (e. g. through taking up educational opportunities at local colleges/universities) for employees to improve themselves. HRM therefore relates to every aspect of the way in which the organisation interacts with its people, e. g. y providing training and development opportunities, appraisal to find out about individual needs. Opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help the organization to achieve its objectives. Development – the provision of opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help themselves to achieve personal objectives. Training and development needs analysis – an analysis of the opportunities and experiences that are required for individuals to train and develop in order to meet organizational and personal objectives. A training and development plan can then be created to set out how these needs can be addressed in practical steps. Audi has developed a training and development programmed designed for technicians at the company. Technicians are appraised by their line managers to identify their personal training and development needs. They then work with professional consultants on development training activities as well as attending relevant courses either at the Audi training center or on external courses. The technicians are able to use a multimedia based Training Needs Analysis tool that enables them to produce a Personal Development Plan automatically. A human resources training and development plan is a written document. Work with manager to identify training and development needs and create a plan to address those needs. At many organizations, the human resources department provides a template for the plan that includes all of the necessary information. Some organizations include training and development plan in annual review. According to the website Management Help, a training and development plan should include certain components. The first component is the training goal, which refers to the overall results that hope to achieve. The learning objectives describe what will be able to do as a result of the training. The learning methods are the activities that will do in order to achieve the objectives. The documentation refers to the evidence of learning activity. The evaluation assesses the quality of results. Before start, it should lso consider the necessary budget and set a timeline to complete to plan. The National Center for Training, Support and Technical Assistance states that training and developments plans focus on three different types of learning gaps or needs. The most common are performance gaps, professional growth gaps and opportunity gaps. Performance gaps happen when a worker lacks the necessary skills to do his job. Professional growth gaps refer to more general skills that an employee would like to develop. Opportunity gaps refer to what an employee needs to learn in order to be promoted to a new position. To create a training and development plan, start by assessing your needs. At annual review or at another appropriate time, discuss with your manager the things that need to learn in order to do your job better. Also consider what would like to learn in order to prepare yourself for a promotion. After select the skills that would like to develop, consult with the human resources department to determine what types of training and development are available. They will help measure skills, select an appropriate training method, and establish the level of imporvement. Training and development programs have a positive impact on organizations. They increase job satisfaction, motivation and morale, which reduces employee turnover. A company with low employee turnover becomes more efficient and also saves significant money in the cost of hiring and training new employees. Consistent training also helps companies stay up to date with new technologies. Compaines may also keep past training and development plans on file to measure how much an employee improves Human resource departments typically conduct activities designed to train and develop company personnel, whether to address performance problems or help prepare an employee for a management role. In addition to formal training courses (such as instructor-led sessions, web-based training and seminars) should offer flexible alternatives such as coaching, mentoring and job-rotation experiences. Developing employee capacity involves managing programs such as employee orientation sessions, policy and procedure awareness sessions, leadership development workshops and other options designed to enable company (and employees) to succeed. Structure training and development department to support associates. Offer training opportunities to those who fail performance appraisals. Encourage employees to develop their professional skills by offering courses at work. Create executive leadership development programs to allow learning new skills necessary to take on management responsibilities. Conduct awareness sessions about new policies and procedures as well as to ensure compliance to local, state and federal regulations. Develop customized training courses for employees. Cover specific details about business. Courses in communication, customer service, diversity, ethics, quality and safety typically allow people to function more effectively on the job. Focus on a particular topic such as cultural intelligence for a month at a time. Schedule related activities to promote awareness. Develop templates, job aids, demonstrations and simulations to support employees in working in a consistent manner across company. Establishing a good image both within the company and with customers and business partners depends on a well-trained workforce. Provide access to training courses through a Learning Management System (administrative software) so students can register and access training materials any time they need them. Ensure employees create an annual development plan to establish development objectives and focus learning on activities that align to company’s strategic goals. Get executive sponsorship for any training initiative establish so that can procure the necessary funding and budget allocation required. Evaluate training and development programs to ensure they are meeting employee and company needs. Training and development opportunities typically lead to increased job satisfaction and motivation. Employee efficiencies result in operational cost savings and increased capacity, resulting in company financial gains. Learning new technologies and techniques for getting work done also improves operational metrics. Training activities can also increase employee retention rates.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Inventions Are Not Just Scientific Advancement but Also Cultural Practices

Technological inventions are not just scientific advancement but also cultural practices The paper is to explain Hugh Mackay’s arguments regarding how technology is always â€Å"cultural through and through†. In relation to his conceptions, cassette-based Walkman, Discman and iPod are used as examples to illustrate how technological inventions are not just scientific advancement but also cultural practices. In the book Consumption and Everyday Life published in 1997, Hugh Mackay argued that â€Å"technology is cultural through and through†, stating that every technological artifacts is totally related with and influenced by culture.The argument can be analyzed in more details by applying the case of portable music players (PMPs) to the Circuit of Culture. The Circuit consists of five major cultural processes, which are production, regulation, representation and consumption and identity of certain artifacts. The Circuit can start at any point, and one must go thro ugh every process when studying each case completely. As all parts are connected with each other, it may appear again in other parts (Martin, 2003). To begin with, the process of production is organized culturally. In the past, Sony did not intend to do market research until the Walkman is introduced.Now every companies recognize the importance of market research (will be discussed later). Besides, Sony designers enjoy great functional and occupational status that motivate their work (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 58-59, 62-63). As the Walkman and hence Sony becomes so successful, designers and programmers in technological artifacts producers like Microsoft and Apple are highly valued. Similarly, one of the reasons that why iPod becomes popular is that Apple performs excellent market researches and provides a comfortable working environment for its designers.Representation of PMPs refers to how they are imaged and defined. Since the Walkman was initially designed for young music-listeners, its advertisements often focus on the technical qualities of the Walkman: small but with high sound quality, which is unbelievable at that time (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 26). But then the market research shows that not only youngsters but also those who participate in outdoor activities consume the Walkman. Therefore Sony started to customize the Walkman to satisfy different markets in Japan and all over the world.For example, solar-powered, water proof and other special designs for outdoor activities are then developed for hikers and divers (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 65-68). This not only shows that how advertising can shape a product and open new market, but also how important market research is: knowing what consumers want is the key to produce a popular product. Furthermore, although the Walkman was originally decided for portable music, but as times goes and technology advances, different consumers now use PMPs for different purposes.For example, most teenagers may use it to listen to their own music. For clergies and pious believers, they may be used to listen to the scripture or sermon. For hardworking learners, they may keep learning when they are travelling by listening to â€Å"talking-books†. Sometimes even museum or gallery visitors help themselves to focus on their trip or enhance their imagination by listening to some â€Å"scenery music†. In fact, how PMPs were consumed can show its identity. PMPs associate different people and groups with the environment differently.According to Sony’s own market research into the Walkman usage, it can be divided to two parts, namely â€Å"escape† and â€Å"enhancement†. The former one refers to the most common usage: listening to music or talking-books by PMPs while travelling, which usually provide an opportunity for one to enjoy his or her â€Å"small world†, but disconnect one from the surrounding â€Å"background music† and hence the society temporarily. The latter one refers to using PMPs to focus on one’s work or just relax, which actually help one to strengthen one’s connection to the environment or the productivity in workplace (du Gay, P. 1997, p. 92-94). While radio and television encouraging home-based consumption, PMPs has introduced a new culture of consumption and the way of listening to music: â€Å"private listening at public place†, which has blurred the difference of public and private place. In the past, it was widely accepted that â€Å"public place† refer to space shared by everyone in the community, while â€Å"private place† refer to space owned by particular person or group, say, one’s home (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 113-114). But now, everyone with a PMP can enjoy his or her own music or channels in public place.If one plays his or her PMSs too loudly, it may disturb the one around him or her. Therefore, in some place, for example the London Underground, there exist regulations limiti ng the maximum volume of PMPs (du Gay, P. , 1997, p. 117). And in Hong Kong, there are several â€Å"quite carriages† in former KCR discouraging people from making noise in the carriages. Apart from the Circuit of Culture, the transformation from cassette-based Walkman and the Discman to iPod (and smart phone) is cultural, too.Firstly, the size of PMPs is getting smaller so that it is easier to carry in today’s busy and crowded cities. Secondly, the mode of playing and selecting music has changed, too. Using the Walkman and the Discman, one could only forward or backward the content linearly, or else one may need to make his or her own cassette or CD. But nowadays one may set up his or her own playlist by using iTunes to combine one’s favourite songs from different albums easily instead of bringing portable hardware like cassettes and CDs out.Last but not least, iPod has much more functions than the Walkman and the Discman, such as photo viewer, calendar, stopwa tch and many games. All these changes are responding the modern culture: advocating for convenience, freedom and individualism. To conclude, the production of a product is closely related with its consumption, and market research is the bridge between the two that helps customize the identity of the product and hence helps the company to represent it by advertisement.The invention of PMPs has developed a new culture of listening to music, which is a reflection of our modern culture but for the good of the community, its usage needs to be regulated so as to protect the right of every users and non-users nearby. Finally, it shows us that these technological inventions are not just scientific advancement but also about cultural practices all the time. Reference: du Gay, P. , Hall, S. , James, N. , Mackay, H. and Negus, K. 1997: Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman, London: Sage Martin, F. (ed. ) 2003: Interpreting Everyday Culture, London: Arnold. 176-178

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Body Image Has Changed Throughout The Years - 1254 Words

Body image has changed throughout the years. The feeling that you have to have this perfect body has grown. Body image is an issue in today’s society especially through the media outlets. What is body image? Body image is what one sees about themselves. What you imagine their appearance to be. This could include their weight or height. Most importantly it is how one feels about themselves. Do they feel happy with what they see? Maybe they feel sad with they see. Roughly 91 percent of women are not confident with their figures. Body stereotypes haves changed throughout the years. Since times began body image has been a big deal. A few examples being; in the 1920’s it was the flapper look. The flapper look being petite and straight as a board. Next in the 1950’s it became the hourglass figure also known as the pin up girl. This figure was very curvy but still with a slim waist. The 1980’s was the supermodel body. This being a tall athletic physique. In current times it’s alike to the 1950’s. Everyone wants the Kim Kardashian body. A skinny waist with big assets. In America only five percent of the population are happy and have the figu re that is â€Å"normal†. Body image is greatly influenced by our peer and the culture we live in. If we are around people that motivate and give positivity towards our bodies then we will have a higher self-esteem. Just as if we are around people that are negative. When around others that give insults and degrade you, then you will have a low self-Show MoreRelatedThe Body Image And Advertisements1630 Words   |  7 PagesBody Image and Advertisements In roughly three decades, the number of advertisement exposed to consumers daily went from 500 in the 1970’s to as many as 5000 today (Johnson, 2006). Fashion advertisements often promote models that have an ideal body which is often models with thin bodies (Diedrichs Lee 2011). Consequently, these advertisements set unrealistic standards to the public (Yu, Damhorst Russell, 2011). Researchers have found that consumers are constantly comparing themselvesRead MoreThe Effects Of Media On Body Image1453 Words   |  6 Pagesthat media and body image are closely related. Particularly, how the body image advertising portrays effects our own body image. It has been documented in adolescents as they are more at risk for developing unhealthy attitudes toward their bodies. They are at a time where they re focused on developing their individual identities, making them susceptible to social pressure and media images. A major reason many people have a negative body image is because of the impact that media has had on our perceptionRead MoreThe Media And Body Image1453 Words   |  6 Pagesthe media and body image are closely related. Particularly, how the body image advertising portrays affects our own body image. Research documented adolescents as they are more at risk for developing unhealthy attitudes toward their bodies. They are at a time where they re focused on developing their individual identities, making them susceptible to social pressure and media images. A major reason many people have a negative body image is because of the impact that the media has had on our perceptionRead MoreSocial Media s Effect On A Young Woman s Body Image1298 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Media’s Effect on a Young Woman’s Body Image Social media has become a pastime that consumes hours and hours of so many lives today. Most all women have been impacted in some kind of way by Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram and Twitter because they are using it on a daily basis. Some of these women do not even realize how much they have been negatively impacted by using social media. People see information posted that they would not have known if it were not for social media. SometimesRead More Understanding the Causes of Negative Body Image Essay518 Words   |  3 Pages Understanding the Causes of Negative Body Image I chose to read the book titled â€Å"Understanding the Causes of Negative Body Image† by Barbara Moe because I plan on focusing my research paper on how the media has strong control over women’s development of self-esteem and body image. The message that the media is sending creates the context within which people learn to value size and shape of their body. Moe’s book focuses on how our culture is preoccupied with weight and appearanceRead MoreGlamour Labor Essay748 Words   |  3 PagesGlamour in the Age of Kardashian has an overall theme of how â€Å"glamour labor† has evolved in recent years due to changes in technology, work ethic, and fashion. â€Å"Glamour labor†, a term thought up by Wissinger, is the work an individual does, so that they are perceived as the carefully crafted image that they create and place online. It is the effort and time of shaping one’s body in order to look as put-together as they do online in their day-to-day life. â€Å"Glamour laborers† are the individuals whoRead MoreThe Evolution of a Womans Body Image1282 Words   |  5 PagesThe Evolution of a Woman’s Body Image A womans body is always in the spotlight and expected to look presentable no matter what. Body image is a fight that women have been battling virtually since the 1700s. That is approximately 300 years that the ideal body has been altered in accordance to what society deems as â€Å"beautiful†. It is difficult to predict something that has transformed many times throughout the years, yet in the 1990s and early 2000s, if models became any skinnier, they would notRead MoreThe Religion Of Thinness : An Spiritual Hungers Behind Women s Obsession With Eating Disorders1452 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Michelle M. Lelwica author of The Religion of Thinness: Satisfying the Spiritual Hungers Behind Women’s Obsession with Food and Weight declared that ‘Thinness is worshipped in American culture. Unrealistic body images are promoted in the media and entertainment resulting in greater numbers of women and men who feel ‘too fat’ and suffer from eating disordersâ₠¬â„¢Ã¢â‚¬  (Shell 1). Eating disorders are characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and bingeRead MoreBody Image : Breaking The Stereotypes And Standards947 Words   |  4 PagesBody Image: Breaking the Stereotypes and Standards There is a certain point in life that we become aware of our bodies and how others view them. The way we view our bodies, as individuals, can either help or hurt our self-esteem. Body image can be a very hard battle for anyone to fight; there is a tremendous amount of pressure put on mostly young women to match the â€Å"ideal† body type. What I want to know is, how can we overcome the stereotypes and standards set by the society we live in today? ItRead MoreBody Image And Eating Disorders1375 Words   |  6 PagesBody Image and Eating Disorders Females and males are both under pressure to conform to societies idea of beauty. Women feel pressure to be thin, big chested, while men feel the urge to be lean and muscular. Society portrays these images of thinness and muscularity through media, magazines, and even toys. These images can have an impact on peoples body images, which can lead to eating disorders such as Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa. Body Image is the way you see your body, and how you feel